Ludwigia polycarpa

Short & R. Peter

Transylvania J. Med. Assoc. Sci. 8: 581. 1835.

Common names: Manyfruit primrose-willow false loosestrife
Synonyms: Isnardia polycarpa (Short & R. Peter) Kuntze
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 10.

Herbs slender, with well-developed aerenchyma on sub­merged stems, forming stolons 2.5–15(–22) cm, 1–2.3 mm thick, well branched. Stems erect or ascending, slightly ridged, well branched, (10–)25–60(–85) cm, glabrate with raised ± strigillose lines decurrent from leaf axils. Leaves alternate; stipules narrowly to broadly ovate, 0.1–0.4 × 0.1–0.3 mm; stolons: leaves often clustered near apex of stolon, petiole 0–0.5 cm, blade narrowly elliptic or oblanceolate, 0.8–2(–3.2) × 0.2–0.8(–1.2) cm, base attenuate, margins entire or remotely denticulate, apex acute, surfaces glabrous; stems: petiole winged, 0.1–1 cm, blade very narrowly oblong-elliptic, 3.5–11 × 0.4–1(–1.7) cm, base very narrowly cuneate or long-attenuate, margins entire and densely, minutely papillose-serrulate with obscure hydathodal glands, apex narrowly acute or acuminate, surfaces glabrous; bracts not much reduced. Inflorescences elongated, leafy spikes, flowers solitary in leaf axils, sometimes borne almost to base of stems; bracteoles attached 0.5–2.5(–3) mm distal to base of ovary, linear-lanceolate, 3.5–6.5(–8) × 0. 4–1(–1.3) mm, with a swollen base, margins minutely papillose-serrulate. Flowers: sepals spreading horizontally with reflexed tips, pale green, narrowly ovate-deltate, 2.5–4.5 × 1.5–3.2 mm, margins entire, minutely papillose-serrulate, apex elongate-acuminate, surfaces glabrous; petals 0; filaments yellowish green, 0.7–1.5 mm, base dilated, anthers 0.5–0.9 × 0.5–0.7 mm; pollen shed in tetrads; ovary oblong, barely 4-angled, 3–4.5 × 2–3.5 mm; nectary disc elevated 0.5–0.8 mm on ovary apex, yellowish green, 1.8–3 mm diam., 4-lobed, glabrous; style yellowish green, 0.5–0.8 mm, glabrous, stigma broadly clavate to subglobose, 0.4–0.8 × 0.3–0.6 mm, usually 4-lobed, not exserted beyond anthers. Capsules oblong-obovoid, obscurely 4-angled, 4–7 × 2.5–5 mm, hard-walled, irregularly dehiscent, pedicel 0.1–0.3 mm. Seeds light brown, narrowly oblong with curved ends, 0.5–0.6 × 0.2–0.3 mm, surface cells elongate parallel to seed length. 2n = 32.

Phenology: Flowering Jun–Sep.
Habitat: Ditches, moist prairies, alluvial ground of ponds, lakes, and rivers, marshes, swales, edges of lagoons, low fallow fields.
Elevation: 100–300 m.


Ont., Conn., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Nebr., Ohio, Pa., Va., W.Va., Wis.


Ludwigia polycarpa, unlike all other species in sect. Isnardia, is distributed primarily in the central Midwest and Great Lakes regions, with one highly disjunct population recorded from Kootenai County, Idaho, which is presumably introduced. This species has also been found scattered as far east as Connecticut and Massachusetts, and reports of it from Arkansas, Maine, Tennessee, and Vermont cannot be confirmed. As indicated by C. I. Peng (1989), a report of this species from Alabama involved a natural hybrid between L. glandulosa and L. pilosa.

The basal stolons formed by Ludwigia polycarpa tend to be shorter, more condensed, and more branched than those found in other species, and may be a morphological adaptation to perennial survival in the colder areas in which it grows.

Selected References


Lower Taxa

... more about "Ludwigia polycarpa"
Peter C. Hoch +
Short & R. Peter +
Isnardia +
Manyfruit primrose-willow +  and false loosestrife +
Ont. +, Conn. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mo. +, Nebr. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, Va. +, W.Va. +  and Wis. +
100–300 m. +
Ditches, moist prairies, alluvial ground of ponds, lakes, and rivers, marshes, swales, edges of lagoons, low fallow fields. +
Flowering Jun–Sep. +
Transylvania J. Med. Assoc. Sci. +
Isnardia polycarpa +
Ludwigia polycarpa +
Ludwigia sect. Isnardia +
species +