Zigadenus densus

(Desrousseaux) Fernald

Rhodora 42: 254. 1940.

Common names: Osceola’s plume black snakeroot crow poison pine-barren death camas
Basionym: Melanthium densum Desrousseaux in J. Lamarck et al., Encycl. 4: 26. 1796
Synonyms: Amianthium angustifolium (Michaux) A. Gray Amianthium texanum (Bush) R. R. Gates Helonias angustifolia Michaux Oceanoros leimanthoides (A. Gray) Small Tracyanthus angustifolius (Michaux) Small Tracyanthus angustifolius var. texanus Bush Tracyanthus texanus (Michaux) S. Watson Zigadenus angustifolius A. Gray Zigadenus leimanthoides
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 26. Treatment on page 83. Mentioned on page 82, 84, 89, 90.

Plants 4–20 dm, from bulbs; bulbs not clumped, tunicate, ovoid, 0.5–2 × 1–2 cm. Leaves: proximal blades 10–50 cm × 2–12 mm. Inflorescences racemose or paniculate, 40–100-flowered, cylindrical, 4–15 × 2.5–5 cm. Flowers: perianth hypogynous, 5–10 mm diam.; tepals persistent in fruit, cream colored to greenish, ovate to elliptic, 3–5 mm, narrowed but not sharply contracted basally; gland 1, obscure; pedicel 1–2 cm, bracts often tinged with red, lanceolate, 2–12 mm. Capsules narrowly conic, 10–20 mm.

Phenology: Flowering mid Mar–Jul.
Habitat: Pine bogs, flatlands
Elevation: 0–1800 m


V26 75-distribution-map.jpg

Ala., Del., Fla., Ga., Ky., La., Miss., N.J., N.Y., N.C., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va.


As treated here, Zigadenus densus includes Z. leimanthoides (W. W. McDearman 1984). These two entities are distinct in some parts of the range, but intergrade in size, inflorescence morphology, and flowering time in the Gulf coast region. The size of the plant (determined by age and environment) seems to affect inflorecence morphology, smaller plants bearing simple racemes and larger plants developing compound ones. Plants in more mountainous habitats develop paniculate inflorescences. Recognition of the two taxa at the varietal level may eventually be desirable.

Selected References


Lower Taxa

... more about "Zigadenus densus"
Fayla C. Schwartz +
(Desrousseaux) Fernald +
Melanthium densum +
Osceola’s plume +, black snakeroot +, crow poison +  and pine-barren death camas +
Ala. +, Del. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ky. +, La. +, Miss. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Va. +  and W.Va. +
0–1800 m +
Pine bogs, flatlands +
Flowering mid Mar–Jul. +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
Amianthium angustifolium +, Amianthium texanum +, Helonias angustifolia +, Oceanoros leimanthoides +, Tracyanthus angustifolius +, Tracyanthus angustifolius var. texanus +, Tracyanthus texanus +, Zigadenus angustifolius +  and Zigadenus leimanthoides +
Zigadenus densus +
Zigadenus +
species +