Viola bicolor


Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 175. 1813.

Common names: Wild or field pansy violette de Rafinesque
Synonyms: Viola kitaibeliana var. rafinesquei (Greene) Fernald V. rafinesquei Greene
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 6. Treatment on page 122. Mentioned on page 111, 113, 116.

× 0.3–1 cm, base attenuate, margins entire or crenate-serrate especially toward apex, eciliate, apex rounded to obtuse, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent. Peduncles 1–4.5 cm, glabrous or pubescent. Flowers: sepals ovate to lanceolate, margins ciliate or eciliate, auricles 0.5–2 mm; petals white or cream to pale bluish violet on both surfaces, dark purple-veined, lateral 2 longer than sepals, bearded, lowest 8–10 mm, spur white to blue-violet, gibbous, 1–1.5 mm, shorter than or equaling sepal auricles; style head bearded; cleistogamous flowers axillary. Capsules ellipsoid to oblong, 4–7 mm, glabrous. Seeds beige to bronze, 0.3–1.5 mm. 2n = 34.

Phenology: Flowering Mar–May.
Habitat: Prairies, open woodlands, fields, pastures, roadsides, lawns, waste ground
Elevation: 0–3000 m


V6 200-distribution-map.jpg

Ont., Sask., Ala., Ariz., Ark., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Md., Mass., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va.


Viola bicolor is the only pansy native to North America (V. B. Baird 1942; J. Clausen et al. 1964; A. E. Radford et al. 1968) and is the only annual Viola species that produces cleistogamous flowers (Baird; A. Gershoy 1934). Roots of V. bicolor have the odor of wintergreen when crushed (W. J. Hayden and J. Clough 1990).

Selected References


Lower Taxa

... more about "Viola bicolor"
R. John Little +  and Landon E. McKinney† +
Wild or field pansy +  and violette de Rafinesque +
Ont. +, Sask. +, Ala. +, Ariz. +, Ark. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Md. +, Mass. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Nebr. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Va. +  and W.Va. +
0–3000 m +
Prairies, open woodlands, fields, pastures, roadsides, lawns, waste ground +
Flowering Mar–May. +
Fl. Amer. Sept. +
Endemic +  and Illustrated +
Viola kitaibeliana var. rafinesquei +  and V. rafinesquei +
Viola bicolor +
species +