Autik. Bot., 132. 1840.
Rhizome horizontal, white, very slender-elongated, brittle; internodes elongated. Scapes 1–2, round in cross section, 1.5–3.2 dm, ca. 2.5–3 times longer than bracts, slender, glabrous. Bracts often downturned but leaves held well away from ground, sessile; blade mottled darker green, mottling becoming obscure in age, lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate-elliptic, 5–8.3 × 2–3.3 cm, not glossy, apex blunt or acute. Flower erect, no odor reported; sepals recurved basally and declining to ± same plane of and alternating with leaves, green, lanceolate, 13–20 × 5–7 mm, margins entire, apex acute; petals long-lasting, erect, ± connivent, not fully concealing stamens and ovary, maroon-red, purple, greenish tan, or 2-colored, claw dark reddish maroon basally, often twisted, linear to narrowly spatulate, 2.8–6.6 × 20–40 cm, widest above middle, thick-textured, basally clawed, margins entire, apex acute, claw to ± 1/2 as long as expanded limb; stamens incurved, 13–21 mm; filaments purple, slender; anthers weakly to strongly incurved, purple, 4–6 mm, ± slender, dehiscence introrse; connectives weakly to strongly incurved, purple, extending 1 mm beyond anthers; ovary dark purple, ovoid-rhomboid, 6-angled, 6–7 mm; stigmas erect, somewhat divergent-recurved, distinct, purple, nearly linear, obscurely subulate, 3–4 mm, weakly fleshy. Fruits baccate, purplish, odorless, 6-angled, prolonged angle folds making fruit appear almost winged, 0.7–1.2 cm, pulpy. 2n = 10.
Phenology: Flowering later winter–spring (Feb–early May).
Habitat: Alluvial soils, floodplains, rocky upland woodlands, brushy thickets, canebrakes, heavy shade, or thin, open woods
Elevation: 20–200 m
Ala., Fla., Ga., S.C., Tenn.
Trillium lancifolium occurs mostly in small, regionally disjunct populations.