U.S.D.A. Bur. Pl. Industr. Bull. 248: 25. 1912.
Trees or shrubs 6–20+ m; twigs weakly compressed; bark white, smooth. Leaves: blade drying concolorous olive or tan, ovate, elliptic, or oblong, 8–17 × 3.5–7 cm, leathery, base cuneate, obtuse, or rounded, apex acuminate or obtuse, tip bluntly acute, surfaces glandular, glossy adaxially, glands small, often punctiform, numerous, sometimes more so abaxially. Inflorescences 15–100-flowered, axillary, panicles of dichasia, 1–3 times compound; axis 15–60 mm, lateral branches 5–20 mm, axis and branches compressed, glandular; bracts and bracteoles caducous. Flowers sessile at tips of lateral branches; bud pyriform, 4–5 mm; hypanthium obconic to narrowly campanulate, 3–5 mm; calyx lobes caducous, leaving round crateriform scar at ovary summit, equal, 0.5 × 0.5 mm; petals coherent, forming a calyptra, falling as a unit at anthesis; stamens 50–100, 3–5 mm; style 6–7 mm. Berries purple black, ellipsoid, 15–20 mm; calyx tube reduced to persistent, apical ring, 1–2 mm diam. 2n = 22.
Phenology: Flowering spring, summer.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, often near fresh water.
Elevation: 0–40 m.
Introduced; Fla., se Asia (including India), introduced also elsewhere in tropics.
Syzygium cumini is known in the flora area from the central and southern peninsula.
Pimenta dioica has become established near Miami, Florida, and is perhaps most similar to Syzygium cumini. Of the berry fruited species, only these two have many-flowered panicles. Pimenta dioica is most easily distinguished from S. cumini by having pubescent (versus glabrous) flowering hypanthia, leaves with 10–15 prominent lateral veins (versus numerous weak lateral veins), embryos with a hypocotyl much longer than the cotyledons, and leaves with a strong spicy aroma when crushed.