Gard. Dict. ed. 8, Linaria no. 13. 1768.
Perennials, reproducing vegetatively by adventitious buds or stolons. Fertile stems erect, 49–150 cm; sterile stems to 15 cm. Leaves of fertile stems: blade ovate to lanceolate, flat, 10–65 × 3–31 mm, apex acute. Racemes 1–35-flowered, lax or dense; bracts ovate to lanceolate, 3–20 × 2–12 mm. Pedicels erect-patent to erect, 3–22 mm in flower, 4–32 mm in fruit. Calyx lobes ovate to linear-lanceolate, (1.9–)3–9.5 × (0.9–)1–3.5 mm in flower, 4–10(–13) × 1.5–5 mm in fruit, apex acute. Corollas pale to bright yellow, (27–)28–49 mm; tube 6–11 mm wide, spurs straight or curved, 11–30 mm, slightly shorter, subequal to, or longer than rest of corolla, abaxial lip sinus (1.8–)2–2.5 mm, adaxial lip sinus 2–3.5(–4) mm. Styles simple; stigma entire. Capsules subglobular, 4–7 × 4–7 mm, glabrous; loculi equal, rarely subequal. Seeds brown, brown-gray, or black, subtrigonous or ± tetrahedral, 1–2 × 0.8–1.6 mm, with longitudinal obtuse marginal ridges and anastomosed obtuse or truncate ridges on faces; wing absent.
Introduced; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., N.S., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), Ont., Que., Sask., Yukon, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Conn., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Kans., Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., Mont., N.Dak., N.H., N.Mex., Nebr., Nev., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Utah, Vt., Wash., Wyo., Europe, sw Asia, introduced also in s South America (Argentina), Australia.
Subspecies 2 (2 in the flora).
Linaria dalmatica was originally introduced into North America as an ornamental plant and is currently classified as a noxious weed in seven states in the United States and two Canadian provinces (https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=LIDA).
Subspecies of Linaria dalmatica can be difficult to recognize because characteristics partly overlap and intermediate specimens may be found.
Linaria genistifolia and L. dalmatica are closely related, and the latter is sometimes treated as a subspecies of L. genistifolia by several authors. Although further research is required in this species complex (including L. grandiflora, among others), the author recognizes L. genistifolia and L. dalmatica as independent species. Nevertheless, published references to L. genistifolia could in fact correspond to L. dalmatica. In order to obtain a conclusive identification for either species, it is necessary to study flowering specimens.
|1||Pedicels 4–10(–13) mm in fruit; corollas (27–)28–38(–42) mm; spurs 11–24 mm, shorter, subequal to, or longer than rest of corolla.||Linaria dalmatica subsp. dalmatica|
|1||Pedicels (7–)12–32 mm in fruit; corollas 30–49 mm; spurs 18–30 mm, subequal to or longer than rest of corolla.||Linaria dalmatica subsp. macedonica|