Mant. Pl. 1: 35. 1767.
Syst. Nat. ed. 12, 2: 71, 104. 1767.
Illustrator: Yevonn Wilson-Ramsey
Copyright: Flora of North America Association
Plants (0.5–)1–8(–20) cm. Stems often reddish, branched or simple, rooting adventitiously from proximal nodes. Leaves: ocrea brownish, broadly funnelform, 1–1.5 mm, margins oblique; petiole (0.1–)2–10 mm; blade 1–6.5 × 1–5 mm, base tapering to truncate, apex obtuse to acute, glabrous. Pedicels 0.1–1.5 mm or absent. Flowers: perianth 0.9–1.8 mm; tepals ovate to elliptic, margins entire, apex obtuse; stamens ca. 1/2 as long as tepals. Achenes 1–1.8 × 0.7–0.8 mm, dull. 2n = 14 (Mongolia, Norway), 28.
Phenology: Flowering Jul–Aug, fruiting Aug–Sep.
Habitat: Arctic tundra and alpine meadows with permanently moist gravel, especially around persistent snow patches near streams, ponds, and lakes
Elevation: 0-4400 m
Greenland, Alta., B.C., Man., Nfld. and Labr. (Labr.), N.W.T., Nunavut, Ont., Que., Yukon, Alaska, Colo., Mont., Utah, Wyo., s South America (Argentina, Chile), n Europe, c, e Asia.
Koenigia islandica is among the smallest of terrestrial flowering plants and one of few annual species in arctic and alpine floras. Some other species exhibit a similar bipolar distribution (e.g., Anemone multifida Poiret, Osmorhiza chilensis Hooker & Arnott, and Carex macloviana D’Urville).