Corallorhiza trifida


Specim. Inaug. Corallorhiza, 8. 1760.

Common names: Early coral-root northern coral-root corallorhize trifide
Synonyms: Corallorhiza corallorhiza (Linnaeus) MacMillan Corallorhiza corallorhiza var. coloradensis Cockerell Corallorhiza innata Nuttall Corallorhiza innata var. virescens Farr Corallorhiza trifida var. verna (Nuttall) Fernald Corallorhiza trifida var. virescens (Farr) Fernald Corallorhiza verna Corallorhiza wyomingensis
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 26. Treatment on page 636. Mentioned on page 633, 637.

Stems ± strongly thickened, base not bulbous. Inflorescences: racemes lax to dense, 8–35 × 1–3 cm. Flowers 3–18, inconspicuous; perianth open; sepals spreading, yellowish to green, lanceolate, 1-veined, 3.5–7 mm; lateral sepals often strongly recurved; petals arching over and clasping column, light yellow-green, often spotted with purple, lanceolate, 1-veined, 3–5.5 mm; lip white, often purple spotted, 2.5–4 × 1.5–3 mm, thin, with 2 small lateral lobes or teeth, middle lobe oblong, often somewhat dilated near apex, with 2 distinct basal lamellae; column curved toward lip, yellowish green, sometimes spotted purple basally, with shallow adaxial channel, 2–3.3 mm; ovary 2.1–6.5 mm; mentum inconspicuous. Capsules ellipsoid, 4.5–15 × 4.3–6 mm. 2n = 42.

Phenology: Flowering spring–summer.
Habitat: Coniferous, deciduous, and mixed woods, swamps, mountain woods, upland habitats northward, restricted to cool, moist habitats southward
Elevation: 0–3100 m


V26 1306-distribution-map.jpg

Greenland, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Nunavut, Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon, Alaska, Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mont., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Utah, Vt., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo., Eurasia.


Corallorhiza trifida is largely autogamous, although a syrphid fly (Syrphus cinctellus) was reported as a pollinator by F. Silen (1906). Various floral morphs exist, some with weak geographic correlation; they do not appear to warrant taxonomic recognition. Variants of C. odontorhiza, C. wisteriana, and C. maculata without red and purple pigments in sepals and petals are occasionally misidentified as C. trifida.

Selected References


Lower Taxa

... more about "Corallorhiza trifida"
Lawrence K. Magrath +  and John V. Freudenstein +
Châtelain +
Early coral-root +, northern coral-root +  and corallorhize trifide +
Greenland +, St. Pierre and Miquelon +, Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. +, N.W.T. +, N.S. +, Nunavut +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Alaska +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mont. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.Dak. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +  and Eurasia. +
0–3100 m +
Coniferous, deciduous, and mixed woods, swamps, mountain woods, upland habitats northward, restricted to cool, moist habitats southward +
Flowering spring–summer. +
Specim. Inaug. Corallorhiza, +
Corallorhiza corallorhiza +, Corallorhiza corallorhiza var. coloradensis +, Corallorhiza innata +, Corallorhiza innata var. virescens +, Corallorhiza trifida var. verna +, Corallorhiza trifida var. virescens +, Corallorhiza verna +  and Corallorhiza wyomingensis +
Corallorhiza trifida +
Corallorhiza +
species +