Sketch Bot. S. Carolina 2: 333. 1823.
Biennials, perennials, or subshrubs, 20–110(–150) cm, hairs usually soft, flexible, flagelliform (1–5 large, short basal cells, abruptly changing to thinner, elongate distal cells); taprooted or fibrous-rooted. Stems erect, ascending, procumbent or decumbent, simple or branched, glabrous or woolly, arachnoid (in C. mariana), often densely stipitate-glandular, especially distally. Leaves: basal (in rosettes) and cauline; alternate; sessile; basal blades 1-nerved (net-veined), spatulate to oblanceolate (bases petiole-like), margins entire or apically dentate-serrate, faces usually sparsely to densely woolly (at least in young rosettes) or piloso-sericeous, rarely arachnoid; cauline blades linear, lanceolate, elliptic, or ovate (bases sometimes ± clasping), margins entire or dentate, sometimes coarsely ciliate, faces glabrous or densely woolly, pilose, or arachnoid, or stipitate-glandular. Heads in corymbiform, subumbelliform, or paniculiform arrays (peduncles nearly naked to leafy-bracteate). Involucres campanulate, (5–12 ×) 5.5–14 mm. Phyllaries 30–55 in 3–5 series, 1-nerved, (weakly to strongly keeled proximally, flat to slightly convex distally), linear-lanceolate to oblanceolate, unequal, chartaceous to membranous proximally, membranous or foliaceous distally, margins scarious proximally, faces glabrous or hairy, sometimes stipitate-glandular or gland-dotted. Receptacles slightly convex, shallowly pitted, epaleate. Ray florets 9–36, pistillate, fertile; corollas yellow. Disc florets 25–90, bisexual, fertile; corollas yellow, ampliate, tubes ± equaling distally dilated throats, lobes 5, erect, triangular; style-branch appendages triangular. Cypselae (stramineous) obconic, compressed, usually smooth or shallowly 1–10-ribbed, sometimes 2–10-ridged (ridges yellow to red-brown, clavate, translucent), faces sparsely to moderately strigose; pappi persistent, in (2–)3(–4) series, outer of linear to narrowly triangular scales 0.4–1.4 mm, inner 1–2(–3) series of 20–40 whitish to stramineous, thin, barbellate, apically attenuate or clavate bristles. x = 5, 4, 9.
se United States.
Species 11 (11 in the flora).
All species of Chrysopsis are native to Florida; two species occur also north and west of the state. As circumscribed here, the genus includes the North American goldenasters that bear flagelliform hairs with bases of large cells. Historically, Chrysopsis included most species treated here in Heterotheca and all species treated here in Pityopsis (J. C. Semple 1981, 1996, literature cited therein). The two annual species of Bradburia are excluded, although G. L. Nesom (1991) included them in Chrysopsis. The cytotaxonomy of Chrysopsis has been studied in detail with the karyotypes of nearly all species illustrated, the allopolypoid origins of the C. gossypina complex documented, and the cytogeography of the four ploidy levels in C. mariana described (Semple 1977; Semple et al. 1980; Semple and C. C. Chinnappa 1980, 1980b, 1984, 1986). Semple and J. L. A. Hood (2005) described the pappi of the genera of subtribe Chrysopsidinae. Pappus traits of species within Chrysopsis are similar but differ from those of Bradburia, Heterotheca, and Pityopsis. Most species of Chrysopsis are restricted to limited habitats within Florida; some are rare or threatened. Different morphotypes of C. gossypina, a variable allopolyploid, may be superficially similar to one or another of the distinct diploid species (Semple 1981).
Diplogon Rafinesque is a rejected name.
Nesom, G. L. 1991. Union of Bradburia with Chrysopsis (Asteraceae: Astereae), with a phylogenetic hypothesis for Chrysopsis. Phytologia 71: 109–121.
Semple, J. C. and C. C. Chinnappa. 1980. Phylogenetic implications of meiosis in wild and cultivated interspecific hybrids in Chrysopsis (Compositae–Astereae): C. godfreyi (n = 5) × gossypina ssp. cruiseana (n = 9) and C. godfreyi (n = 5) × linearifolia (n = 5). Canad. J. Bot. 58: 172–181.
Semple, J. C. and C. C. Chinnappa. 1980b. Karyotype evolution and chromosome numbers in Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Ell. sensu Semple (Compositae–Astereae). Canad. J. Bot. 58: 164–171.
|1||Cypselae 2–10-ridged (ridges yellow to red-brown, translucent); phyllaries glabrous or densely pilose, sometimes stipitate-glandular||> 2|
|1||Cypselae without yellow to red-brown, translucent ridges; phyllaries moderately to densely glandular||> 6|
|2||Phyllary apices spreading to reflexed, twisted, usually long-attenuate (some n Florida collections acute, but leaves typical), eglandular; cypselae 6–10-ridged||Chrysopsis subulata|
|2||Phyllary apices usually appressed, acute to acuminate, sometimes stipitate-glandular; cypselae 2–6-ridged||> 3|
|3||Phyllaries 1.5–2.5 mm wide||Chrysopsis latisquamea|
|3||Phyllaries 0.5–1(–1.3) mm wide||> 4|
|4||Margins of distal leaves piloso-ciliate||Chrysopsis gossypina|
|4||Margins of distal leaves not piloso-ciliate||> 5|
|5||Stems erect; leaf blades mostly linear (sometimes twisted), proximal to mid cauline faces glabrous; panhandle and peninsular Florida||Chrysopsis linearifolia|
|5||Stems procumbent; leaf blades linear-elliptic to oblong; proximal to mid cauline faces sometimes sparsely pilose||Chrysopsis gossypina|
|6||Distal leaves (and stems) silky-sericeous||Chrysopsis mariana|
|6||Distal leaves stipitate-glandular, hirsute, woolly, lanulate, or sericeous-tomentose, not silky-sericeous.||> 7|
|7||Phyllary apices spreading to reflexed, attenuate to long-attenuate; c, w Florida panhandle||> 8|
|7||Phyllary apices erect, acute, acuminate, or obtuse; peninsular and e panhandle Florida||> 9|
|8||Stems decumbent to ascending or erect; heads in corymbiform to paniculiform arrays; coastal dunes (see also forms of C. gossypina subsp. gossypina)||Chrysopsis godfreyi|
|8||Stems erect; heads in paniculiform arrays; inland in disturbed habitats||Chrysopsis lanuginosa|
|9||Mid cauline leaf faces woolly or tomentose; involucres yellow-green in bud||> 10|
|9||Mid cauline leaf faces usually sparsely hirsute, rarely woolly, stipitate-glandular; involucres green in bud||> 11|
|10||Mid cauline leaf blades obovate or oblanceolate, bases cuneate to slightly auriculate-clasping, marginal cilia rarely more than 1 mm, faces appressed-tomentose; distal blade faces appressed-tomentose, sparsely stipitate-glandular (glands hidden by hair)||Chrysopsis floridana|
|10||Mid cauline leaf blades oblong, oblong-elliptic, sometimes ovate to lanceolate, bases truncate to rounded, some marginal cilia 2–3 mm, faces woolly-lanulate; distal blade faces glabrate to sparsely woolly-pilose, densely stipitate-glandular||Chrysopsis highlandsensis|
|11||Biennials; stems erect, simple, tips erect to ascending before heads form; mid leaf faces glabrate to sparsely strigillose, densely short-stipitate-glandular (larger glandular hairs 0.01–0.3 mm); heads in compact to lax, corymbiform arrays; peninsu-lar and e panhandle Florida||Chrysopsis scabrella|
|11||Perennials (sometimes monocarpic); stems ascending to erect, tips usually nodding before heads form; mid leaf faces moderately hirsute, densely stipitate-glandular, viscid (larger glandular hairs 0.3–0.9 mm); heads in compact to moderately open, corymbiform to paniculiform arrays; mostly Lake Wales Ridge and Atlantic Ridge, c and se Florida||Chrysopsis delaneyi|