New Fl. 2: 58. 1837.

Common names: Yellow false foxglove
Etymology: Latin aureolus, golden, and -arius, possession, alluding to corolla
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 17. Treatment on page 555. Mentioned on page 458, 556, 557, 558, 559, 562.

Herbs, annual or perennial; hemiparasitic, caudex knotted. Stems erect, not fleshy, glabrous, sparsely to densely puberulent, densely villous, or glandular-pubescent. Leaves basal and cauline, opposite; petiole present; blade leathery, not fleshy, margins entire, pinnatifid, or 2-pinnatifid. Inflorescences terminal, loose racemes; bracts present. Pedicels present; bracteoles absent. Flowers: sepals 5, calyx radially symmetric, campanulate or turbinate, lobes linear to deltate, sometimes lanceolate; petals 5, corolla yellow, bilabiate, campanulate, abaxial lobes 3, adaxial 2; stamens 4, didynamous, filaments glabrous or ciliate, anthers villous; staminode 0; ovary 2-locular, placentation axile; stigma truncate. Capsules: dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds 300–500, brown to blackish, ovoid to deltoid, wings present (absent in A. pedicularia). x = 14.


c, e North America, n Mexico.


Species 8 (7 in the flora).

Molecular phylogenetic analysis supports a close relationship of Aureolaria with Agalinis, Esterhazya J. C. Mikan, and Seymeria (J. R. Bennett and S. Mathews 2006). Further evidence for these relationships is similarities in floral morphology among these genera.

Aureolaria greggii (S. Watson) Pennell occurs broadly throughout northern Mexico.


1 Calyx lobe margins crenate or pinnatifid; plants annual. > 2
2 Leaf blade margins 2-pinnatifid, sometimes undivided or basal leaves less deeply incised; calyx tubes campanulate; corolla tubes floccose. Aureolaria pectinata
2 Leaf blade margins pinnatifid or 2-pinnatifid (first sinus deeper than second when both present); calyx tubes turbinate; corolla tubes glabrous or sparsely pubescent. Aureolaria pedicularia
1 Calyx lobe margins entire; plants perennial. > 3
3 Stems and leaf blade surfaces sparsely to densely brown-pubescent; capsules densely pubescent. Aureolaria virginica
3 Stems and leaf blade surfaces glabrous, puberulent, or white-puberulent; capsules glabrous. > 4
4 Leaf blade margins proximally serrate to pinnatifid, entire on distal 1/4–1/. Aureolaria patula
4 Leaf blade margins entire, serrate, or shallowly to deeply pinnatifid. > 5
5 Stems and leaf blade surfaces puberulent or white-puberulent. Aureolaria grandiflora
5 Stems and leaf blade surfaces glabrous. > 6
6 Leaf blade margins entire or serrate, rarely proximal leaves pinnatifid. Aureolaria levigata
6 Leaf blade margins pinnatifid or basal leaves 2-pinnatifid, rarely entire. Aureolaria flava