Viola primulifolia


Sp. Pl. 2: 934. 1753.

Treatment appears in FNA Volume 6. Treatment on page 148. Mentioned on page 115.

Plants perennial, acaulescent, stoloniferous, (3–)5–20(–36) cm; stolons pale, often rooting and leafy at nodes; rhizome thick or slender, fleshy. Leaves basal, 4–8, prostrate to ascending; stipules linear-lanceolate, margins ± crenate-serrate, sometimes glandular, apex acute; petiole (1–)3–13(–29) cm, glabrous or pubescent; blade unlobed, elliptic to narrowly or broadly ovate, (1.5–)3–7(–9) × 1–3(–3.5) cm, longer than wide, base broadly cordate to attenuate, rarely ± truncate, margins crenulate to serrulate, sometimes glandular, mostly eciliate, apex acute to rounded, mucronulate, surfaces glabrous or sparsely pubescent. Peduncles (3–)6–18(–28) cm, glabrous. Flowers: sepals lanceolate to ovate, margins usually eciliate, auricles 1–2 mm; petals white on both surfaces, lower 3 purple-veined, lateral 2 bearded or beardless, lowest 9–14(–16) mm, spur white, gibbous, 1–2 mm; style head beardless; cleistogamous flowers present or absent. Capsules ellipsoid, (5–)8–9 mm, glabrous. Seeds beige to bronze, 1.5–2 mm. 2n = 24.


V6 258-distribution-map.jpg

Ala., Ark., Calif., Conn., D.C., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Ky., La., Maine, Mass., Md., Mich., Minn., Miss., N.C., N.H., N.J., N.Y., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., Vt., W.Va.


Varieties 2 (2 in the flora).

Viola primulifolia occurs in small colonies; individual plants are interconnected by stolons.

Selected References



1 Leaf blades elliptic to widely ovate, base broadly cordate to attenuate, surfaces sparsely pubescent, rarely glabrous; cleistogamous flowers present; c, e United States. Viola primulifolia var. primulifolia
1 Leaf blades elliptic to narrowly ovate, base usually attenuate, rarely ± truncate, surfaces glabrous, rarely pubescent; cleistogamous flowers absent; nw California, sw Oregon. Viola primulifolia var. occidentalis
... more about "Viola primulifolia"
R. John Little +  and Landon E. McKinney† +
Linnaeus +
Ala. +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Conn. +, D.C. +, Del. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Mass. +, Md. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, N.C. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Va. +, Vt. +  and W.Va. +
Chrysion +, Crocion +  and Lophion +
Viola primulifolia +
species +