Treatment appears in FNA Volume 12. Treatment on page 154.

Shrubs or trees, evergreen, synoecious [dioecious]. Leaves opposite, simple; stipules present, interpetiolar; petiole present; blade margins entire [serrulate near apex]; venation pinnate. Inflorescences axillary, cymes [fascicles or flowers solitary]. Flowers bisexual [rarely unisexual]; perianth and androecium perigynous [hypogynous or epigynous]; hypanthium completely adnate to ovary [adnate to ovary proximally and free distally, or absent]; sepals 4[–16], distinct or connate basally, valvate; petals 4[–16], distinct; nectary present [absent]; stamens [4 or]8[–32], distinct [connate basally], free; anthers dehiscing by adaxial valve [longitudinal slits]; pistil 1, 2[–5(–20)]-carpellate; ovary 1/2-inferior [superior to inferior], [1–]2[–5(–10)]-locular, placentation apical-axile; ovules 2[–8] per locule, anatropous [hemitropous]; style [0–]1; stigmas [1–]2[–4]. Fruits berries [capsules or drupes]. Seeds 1 per fruit [1 per locule].


Nearly worldwide, tropics and subtropics.


Genera 17, species ca. 120 (1 in the flora).

Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Linnaeus) Savigny (large-leafed orange mangrove), native to the Indian and western Pacific Islands, has been found as an escape in Miami-Dade County, Florida. It is considered invasive in Florida and efforts are underway to eradicate it. Bruguiera may be distinguished from Rhizophora by its 8–16 sepals and petals and lack of aerial stilt roots.

Lower Taxa