Orychophragmus violaceus

(Linnaeus) O. E. Schulz

Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 54(Beibl. 119): 56. 1916.

Basionym: Brassica violacea Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 667. 1753
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 7. Treatment on page 438.

Stems (0.6–)1.5–6(–9) dm, often branched distally, glabrous or sparsely to densely pilose. Basal leaves: petiole (1–)2–8(–11) cm; blade or terminal lobe cordate, reniform, broadly ovate, or suborbicular, (0.4–)1.5–10(–14) cm × (3–)10–40(–70) mm, base usually cordate, rarely obtuse, margins coarsely crenate with teeth ending in apiculae, apex acute or obtuse; lobes (0 or) 1–6 each side, sessile or petiolulate (to 3 × 2 cm), glabrous or pilose. Cauline leaves sessile or petiolate; (distal) blade (0.5–)2–9(–15) cm × (2–)10–60(–90) mm, base sometimes auriculate or amplexicaul, margins dentate or entire, apex acute or acuminate (auricles to 3 × 4 cm); lobes (0 or) 1–4 each side, sessile or petiolulate, glabrous or pilose. Fruiting pedicels (0.6–)0.8–2(–3) cm, narrower than fruit, glabrous or pilose. Flowers: sepals connivent, (6–)8–13(–16) × 1.5–2.5 mm; petals (12–)16–25(–32) × (4–)5–9(–11) mm; filaments 8–18 mm; anthers (3–)4–6(–8) mm. Fruits (3–)4.5–11(–13) cm × 1.5–3 mm; style (0.3–)0.7–3(–5.5) cm; stigma slightly to distinctly 2-lobed. Seeds 2–3(–3.5) × 1–2 mm. 2n = 24.

Phenology: Flowering Mar–Jun.
Habitat: Railroad tracks


V7 660-distribution-map.gif

Introduced; Va., Asia (China, Japan, Korea).


This is the first report of Orychophragmus violaceus as naturalized in North America, though I have seen the plant cultivated as an ornamental in multiple places. The record is based on Wright 3145 (GH), a collection made on 12 May 1987 in the woods along Southern Railroad tracks in Richmond, Virginia; it is the very same collection on which R. C. Rollins (1993) based his record of Moricandia arvensis (Linnaeus) de Candolle for North America. The species appears to be spreading in other locations in the neighboring areas (Rollins).

Selected References


Lower Taxa