Limnophila indica

(Linnaeus) Druce

Rep. Bot. Exch. Club Soc. Brit. Isles 3: 420. 1914.

Basionym: Hottonia indica Linnaeus Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 919. 1759
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 17. Treatment on page 272.

Perennials aquatic or paludal. Stems: submerged glabrous, aerial to 15 cm, glabrous or glandular-pubescent with stalked or sessile glands. Leaves verticillate or opposite; blade of submerged leaves broadly ovate in outline, 10–35 × 10–15 mm, segments capillary, blade of aerial leaves linear to lanceolate, 10–40 × 1–10 mm. Inflorescences terminal, racemes or flowers solitary, axillary. Pedicels 3–8 mm in flower, 5–12 mm in fruit; bracteoles 1–3.5 mm. Flowers: cleistogamous absent; chasmogamous aerial; calyx 3–3.5 mm, lobes triangulate, 1–2 mm; corolla tube white, 4–5(–8) mm, lobes lavender to purple, 1–2 × 1–1.5 mm; stamens 4–5 mm; style 3–4 mm. Capsules compressed, 3–5 mm. Seeds brown, conic. 2n = 34 (Asia).

Phenology: Flowering Jun–Aug.
Habitat: Ponds, rice fields.
Elevation: 0–100 m.


Limnophila indica is uncommon in the flora area and may not persist. The species is variable: leaf size, shape, number, and dissection can vary with light intensity, day length, and water level (D. Philcox 1970). Corolla and calyx colors vary, and the shape and size of the calyx lobes change during the development of the flower and fruit. Limnophila indica tends to have whorled leaves proximally and flowers in racemes, characteristics that can help distinguish it from L. sessiliflora. Plants sold as L. indica in the aquarium trade are often L. sessiliflora. A hybrid with L. sessiliflora (L. ×ludoviciana Thieret) is discussed below.

Selected References


Lower Taxa