Juncus xiphioides

E. Meyer

Synopsis Juncorum 50. 1822.

Synonyms: Juncus xiphioides var. auratus Engelmann Juncus xiphioides var. littoralis Engelmann
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 22.

Herbs, perennial, rhizomatous, 5–9 dm. Rhizomes 2–3 mm diam. Culms erect, 2–6 mm diam. Cataphylls 0 or 1–2, straw-colored, apex narrowly acute. Leaves: basal 1–3, cauline 2–6, straw-colored; auricles absent; blade 10–40 cm x (3–)7–12 mm. Inflorescences panicles or racemes of 20–50 heads, 2–14 cm, erect or ascending branches; primary bract erect; heads 15–70-flowered, obovoid to globose, 7–11 mm diam. Flowers: tepals green to brown or reddish brown, lanceolate, 2.4–3.7 mm, nearly equal, apex acuminate; stamens 6; anthers ½1/2 to equal filament length. Capsules slightly exserted, chestnut to dark brown, 1-locular, ellipsoid, 2.4–3.8 mm, apex acuminate, not beaked. Seeds elliptic to obovate, 0.4–0.6 mm, not tailed. 2n = 40.

Phenology: Fruiting early summer–fall.
Habitat: Salt marshes, moist areas, ditches, springs, lake and stream shores
Elevation: 500–1600 m


V22 247-distribution-map.jpg

Ariz., Calif., Nev., N.Mex., Utah, Mexico (Baja California).


This species and the next (Juncus ensifolius) are closely related and have been treated as members of a single species (J. xiphioides) by Engelmann. Until a study of the complete subgenus is done, we are hesitant to use a varietal name (J. xiphioides var. triandrus) for the widespread western taxon J. ensifolius.

Selected References


Lower Taxa

... more about "Juncus xiphioides"
Ralph E. Brooks* +  and Steven E. Clemants* +
E. Meyer +
Juncus sect. Ensifolii +
Ariz. +, Calif. +, Nev. +, N.Mex. +, Utah +  and Mexico (Baja California). +
500–1600 m +
Salt marshes, moist areas, ditches, springs, lake and stream shores +
Fruiting early summer–fall. +
Synopsis Juncorum +
Juncus xiphioides var. auratus +  and Juncus xiphioides var. littoralis +
Juncus xiphioides +
Juncus subg. Ensifolii +
species +