Plants perennial or sometimes annual, sometimes stoloniferous. Rhizomes present or absent, horizontal and long or ascending and caudexlike, 0.3–0.5 mm thick, scales usually evident, without tubers. Culms terete to angled, sometimes compressed, to 100 cm × 5 mm. Leaves: distal leaf sheaths persistent, rarely disintegrating, membranous to papery. Spikelets to 40 × 7 mm; floral scales 5–500+ per spikelet. Flowers: anthers 0.2–2.5 mm; styles 2-fid or 3-fid. Achenes variously colored, biconvex to trigonous, 0.4–2 mm, smooth to markedly sculptured at 10X. Tubercles usually clearly different from achene apex in color, texture, and form, rarely merging with apex.


Species ca. 140 (38 in the flora).

Selected References