T. J. O'Brien

Bryologist 103: 513, figs. 2, 3. 2000.

Etymology: Greek echinos, sea-urchin or hedgehog, and phyllon, leaf, alluding to spinose proximal leaf margins
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 28. Treatment on page 324. Mentioned on page 321, 322, 648.

Plants small to medium-sized, green or yellowish. Stems creeping, 1-pinnate or sometimes irregularly 2-pinnate; paraphyllia polymorphous, filiform or sometimes narrowly lanceolate, branched or sometimes unbranched, cells oblong, smooth or papillose over end walls, apical cell bluntly conic by wall thickened at tip; pseudoparaphyllia lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, margins ciliate or serrate, proximal cells subquadrate, centrally papillose. Stem leaves spreading, broadly ovate or rarely elliptic; margins plane or recurved, spinose-serrate distally, entire or distantly serrulate in acumen; apex abruptly narrowed, acumen subulate; costa surface with coarse, spinose teeth over proximal 1/2; laminal cells with abaxial surface echinate, 1-papillose, papilla coarsely obliquely blunt-conic; medial cells subquadrate to short-rectangular; apical cell 20:1, smooth. Branch leaves differentiated from stem leaves, spreading or spreading-erect, slightly overlapping, ± catenulate when dry, broadly ovate, concave; apex abruptly acute; distal medial laminal cells irregular, rhombic, oblong, or subquadrate, walls incrassate; apical cell 7:1, with distal bluntly conic wall thickening. Sexual condition dioicous; perichaetia inner leaves cilia present. Seta 2–2.8 cm. Capsule with stomata present in proximal 1/2. Spores 10–16 µm.


nw North America, e Asia.


Species 1.

Selected References