Prelim. Cat., 4. 1888.
Perennials; glabrous or sparsely pubescent distally. Rhizomes (tuberous at stem base, sometimes also at intervals) subglobose, lobed, 4–15 mm diam. (fleshy). Stems erect, unbranched, (1–)2–6 dm, glabrous or sparsely pubescent on distal 1/2 (trichomes 0.02–0.1 mm). Rhizomal leaves simple, (2–)4–13(–16) cm; petiole (1.5–)2.5–10(–13) cm; blade usually reniform to cordate or ovate, rarely oblong, (1–)2–4(–6) cm, base obtuse to cordate, margins usually repand or entire, rarely shallowly dentate. Cauline leaves (2–)4–10(–14), simple, petiolate or sessile; (middle ones) shortly petiolate or (distally) sessile, base not auriculate; blade ovate to oblong, or oblong-linear to lanceolate, 3–6(–9) cm × 10–30(–45) mm, margins entire, repand, or dentate (margins minutely pubescent). Racemes ebracteate. Fruiting pedicels ascending to divaricate, (10–)15–22(–30) mm. Flowers: sepals oblong, 2.5–4.5 × 1.5–2 mm, lateral pair not saccate basally, (glabrous); petals usually white, rarely pale pink, obovate, (6–)7–12(–16) × 3–5 mm, (short-clawed, apex rounded); filaments: median pairs 4.5–7 mm, lateral pair 2–3.5 mm; anthers oblong, 1–1.5 mm. Fruits linear, 2–3.5(–4) cm × 1.4–1.7 mm; ovules 14–24 per ovary; style 2–4(–5) mm. Seeds dark orange to greenish yellow, oblong or globose, 1.7–2.1 × 1–1.4 mm. 2n = 16, 56, 64, 80, 96, 112.
Phenology: Flowering Mar–Jun.
Habitat: Wet grounds, low woodland, moss hummocks, alluvial woods, grassy floodplains, wet pastures, meadows, pinelands, creek bottoms, stream banks, sandy bottoms, ditches, mesic or wet forests, swamps, marshes, seepy bluffs
Elevation: 0-900 m
Man., Ont., Que., Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.