FLORA OF NORTH AMERICA - Volume 1, Literature Cited

LITERATURE CITED

Robert W. Kiger, editor

THIS is a consolidated list of all works cited in volume 1. In the entries for articles, serial titles are cited by the abbreviated forms recommended in G.D.R. Bridson and E. R. Smith (1991). Cross references to the corresponding full serial titles are interpolated in the list alphabetically by abbreviated form. Two or more works published in the same year by the same author or group of coauthors will be distinguished uniquely and consistently throughout all volumes of Flora of North America by lowercase letters (b, c, d, ...) suffixed to the date for the second and subsequent works in the set. The suffixes are assigned in order of editorial encounter and do not reflect actual chronological sequence of publication. The first work by any particular author or group from any given year carries the implicit date suffix "a"; thus, the sequence of explicit suffixes begins with "b". In two cases, this list includes citations with dates suffixed "b" that are not preceded by citations of "a" works (i.e., ones with no date suffix) for the same year. This does not reflect omissions here but rather that there are corresponding "a" works cited (and encountered first from) elsewhere in the Flora that are not pertinent here.

A. A. P. G. Mem. = A A P G Memoir. [American Association of Petroleum Geologists.]

Abh. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien = Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-königlichen zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien.

Abh. Naturwiss. Naturwiss. Verein Hamburg = Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften herausgegeben von dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg.

Abrams, L. and R. S. Ferris. 1923--1960. Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States: Washington, Oregon, and California. 4 vols. Stanford.

Achuff, P. 1989. Old-growth forests of the Canadian Rocky Mountain national parks. Nat. Areas J. 9: 12--26.

Acta Ecol. = Acta Ecologica.

Acta Horti Berg. = Acta Horti Bergiani.

Acta Phytogeogr. Suec. = Acta Phytogeographica Suecica.

Advancem. Sci. = Advancement of Science; Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.

Advances Bot. Res. = Advances in Botanical Research.

Ager, T. A. 1983. Holocene vegetational history of Alaska. In: H. E. Wright Jr., ed. 1983. Late-Quaternary Environments of the United States. Vol. 2. The Holocene. Minneapolis. Pp. 128--141.

Akin, W. E. 1991. Global Patterns: Climate, Vegetation, and Soils. Norman.

Albee, B. J., L. M. Shultz, and S. Goodrich. 1988. Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Utah. Salt Lake City.

Allard, R. W., M. A. Saghai-Maroof, Zhang Q., and R. A. Jorgenson. 1990. Genetic and molecular organization of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) variants in wild and cultivated barley. Genetics 126: 743--751.

Allen, G. M., P. F. J. Eagles, and S. D. Price, eds. 1990. Conserving Carolinian Canada. Waterloo.

Alston, R. E. and B. L. Turner. 1963. Biochemical Systematics. Englewood Cliffs.

Alston, R. E. and B. L. Turner. 1963b. Natural hybridization among four species of Baptisia Leguminosae. Amer. J. Bot. 50: 159--173.

Amer. Antiquity = American Antiquity.

Amer. Biol. Teacher = American Biology Teacher.

Amer. Fern J. = American Fern Journal; a Quarterly Devoted to Ferns.

Amer. J. Bot. = American Journal of Botany.

Amer. J. Sci. Arts = American Journal of Science, and Arts.

Amer. Midl. Naturalist = American Midland Naturalist; Devoted to Natural History, Primarily That of the Prairie States.

Amer. Naturalist = American Naturalist.

Amer. Sci. = American Scientist [Subtitle varies.]

Anderson, C. M. and M. Treshow. 1980. A review of environmental and genetic factors that affect height in Spartina alterniflora Loisel (salt marsh cordgrass). Estuaries 3: 168--176.

Anderson, E. 1936. The species problem in Iris. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 23: 457--509.

Anderson, R. C. and L. E. Brown. 1986. Stability and instability in plant communities following fire. Amer. J. Bot. 78: 364--368.

Andrews, J. T., ed. 1985. Quaternary Environments: Eastern Canadian Arctic, Baffin Bay, and Western Greenland. Boston.

Andrews, J. T. 1987. The late Wisconsin glaciation and deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. In: W. F. Ruddiman and H. E. Wright Jr., eds. 1987. North America and Adjacent Oceans during the Last Deglaciation. Boulder. Pp. 13--37.

Andrews, J. T. and R. G. Barry, eds. 1976. Abstracts of the Fourth Biennial Meeting of the American Quaternary Association. Tempe.

Ann. Assoc. Amer. Geogr. = Annals of the Association of American Geographers.

Ann. Bot. (London) = Annals of Botany. (London.)

Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. = Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden.

Annual Rev. Ecol. Syst. = Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics.

Anonymous. 1967. Sasakubo Yasuo Kyoju Kanreki Kinen Ronbunshu. Jubilee Publication in the Commemoration of Professor Yasuo Sasa, Dr. Sc., Sixtieth Birthday. Sapporo.

Arber, A. 1925. Monocotyledons. A Morphological Study. Cambridge.

Archer, S., C. Scifres, C. R. Bassham, and R. Maggio. 1988. Autogenic succession in a subtropical savanna: Conversion of grassland to thorn woodland. Ecol. Monogr. 58: 111--127.

Arctic Alpine Res. = Arctic and Alpine Research.

Argus, G. W. 1977. Threatened and endangered species problems in North America. Canada. In: G. T. Prance and T. S. Elias, eds. 1977. Extinction Is Forever. Bronx. Pp. 17--29.

Argus, G. W. and K. M. Pryer. 1990. Rare Vascular Plants in Canada--- Our Natural Heritage. Ottawa.

Arnason, T., R. J. Hebda, and T. Johns. 1981. Use of plants for food and medicine by native peoples of eastern Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 59: 2189--2325.

Arno, S. F. and J. R. Habeck. 1972. Ecology of alpine larch (Larix lyallii Parl.) in the Pacific Northwest. Ecol. Monogr. 42: 417--450.

Asch, D. L. and N. E. Asch. 1977. Chenopod as cultigen: A re-evaluation of some prehistoric collections from eastern North America. Midcontinental J. Archaeol. 2: 3--45.

Avdulov, N. P. 1931. Karyosystematische Untersuchung der Familie Gramineen. Trudy Prikl. Bot., priloz. 44.

Axelrod, D. I. 1950. Evolution of desert vegetation. Publ. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 590: 215--306.

Axelrod, D. I. 1958. Evolution of the Madro-Tertiary Geoflora. Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 24: 433--509.

Axelrod, D. I. 1966. The Eocene Copper Basin flora of northeastern Nevada. Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci. 59: 1--124.

Axelrod, D. I. 1975. Evolution of the Madrean-Tethyan sclerophyll vegetation. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 62: 280--334.

Axelrod, D. I. 1976. History of the coniferous forests, California and Nevada. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 70: 1--62.

Axelrod, D. I. 1979. Age and origin of Sonoran Desert vegetation. Occas. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci. 132: 1--74.

Axelrod, D. I. 1985. Rise of the grassland biome, central North America. Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 51: 163--201.

Axelrod, D. I. 1986. Analysis of some palaeogeographic and palaeoecologic problems of palaeobotany. Palaeobotanist 35: 115--129.

Axelrod, D. I. 1986b. Cenozoic history of some western American pines. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 73: 565--641.

Axelrod, D. I. 1986c. The Sierra redwood (Sequoiadendron) forest: End of a dynasty. Geophytology 16: 25--36.

Axelrod, D. I. 1987. The late Oligocene Creede flora, Colorado. Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci. 130: 1--235.

Axelrod, D. I. 1988. An interpretation of high montane conifers in western Tertiary floras. Paleobiology 14: 301--306.

Axelrod, D. I. 1989. Age and origin of chaparral. In: S.C. Keeley, ed. 1989. The California Chaparral: Paradigms Reexamined. Los Angeles. Pp. 7--19.

Axelrod, D. I. 1990. Age and origin of subalpine forest zone. Paleobiology 16: 360--369.

Axelrod, D. I., M. T. Kalin Arroyo, and P. H. Raven. 1992. Historical development of temperate vegetation in the Americas. Revista Chilena Hist. Nat.

Axelrod, D. I. and P. H. Raven. 1985. Origins of the Cordilleran flora. J. Biogeogr. 12: 21--47.

Ayensu, E. S. 1981. Assessment of threatened plant species in the United States. In: H. Synge, ed. 1981. The Biological Aspects of Rare Plant Conservation. Chichester. Pp. 19--58.

Ayensu, E. S. and R. A. DeFilipps. 1978. Endangered and Threatened Plants of the United States. Washington.

Babcock, E. B. 1947. The Genus Crepis. 2 vols. Berkeley.

Babcock, E. B. and G. L. Stebbins. 1938. The American species of Crepis. Their interrelationships and distribution as affected by polyploidy and apomixis. Publ. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 504.

Bailey, D. K. 1970. Phytogeography and taxonomy of Pinus subsection Balfourianae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 57: 210--249.

Bailey, D. K. 1987. A study of Pinus subsection Cembroides I: The single-needle pinyons of the Californias and the Great Basin. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 44: 275--310.

Bailey, D. K. and F. G. Hawksworth. 1979. Pinyons of the Chihuahuan Desert region. Phytologia 44: 129--133.

Bailey, L. H. 1943. Species of Cucurbita. Gentes Herb. 6: 267--322, fig. 143.

Bailey, L. H., E. Z. Bailey, and Bailey Hortorium Staff. 1976. Hortus Third. A Concise Dictionary of Plants Cultivated in the United States and Canada. New York.

Bakeless, J. 1961. The Eyes of Discovery. New York.

Baker, H. G. 1948. Dimorphism and monomorphism in the Plumbaginaceae I. A survey of the family. Ann. Bot. (London), n. s. 12: 207--209.

Baker, H. G. 1953. Dimorphism and monomorphism in the Plumbaginaceae III. Correlation of distribution patterns with dimorphism and monomorphism in Limonium. Ann. Bot. (London), n. s. 17: 615--627.

Baker, H. G. 1955. Self-compatibility and establishment after long-distance dispersal. Evolution 9: 347--348.

Baker, H. G. 1965. Characteristics and modes of origin of weeds. In: H. G. Baker and G. L. Stebbins, eds. 1965. The Genetics of Colonizing Species. New York. Pp. 147--172.

Baker, H. G. 1974. The evolution of weeds. Annual Rev. Ecol. Syst. 5: 1--24.

Baker, H. G. and G. L. Stebbins, eds. 1965. The Genetics of Colonizing Species. New York.

Baker, R. G. 1983. Holocene vegetational history of the western United States. In: H. E. Wright Jr., ed. 1983. Late-Quaternary Environments of the United States. Vol. 2. The Holocene. Minneapolis. Pp. 109--127.

Baker, R. G., R. S. Rhodes II, D. P. Schwert, A. C. Ashworth, T. J. Frest, G. R. Hallberg, and J. A. Janssens. 1986. A full-glacial biota from southeastern Iowa, USA. J. Quatern. Sci. 1: 91--107.

Baker, R. G., J. van Nest, and G. Woodworth. 1989. Dissimilarity coefficients for fossil pollen spectra from Iowa and western Illinois during the last 30,000 years. Palynology 13: 63--77.

Ball, P. W. 1968. Vicia. In: T. G. Tutin et al., eds. 1964-- 1980. Flora Europaea. 5 vols. Cambridge. Vol. 2, pp. 129--136.

Bally, A. W. and R. A. Palmer, eds. 1989. The Geology of North America--- An Overview. Boulder. [Geology of North America. Vol. A.]

Bally, A. W, C. R. Scotese, and M. I. Ross. 1989. North America; plate tectonic setting and tectonic elements. In: A. W. Bally and R. A. Palmer, eds. 1989. The Geology of North America---An Overview. Boulder. Pp. 1--15.

Barabé, D., ed. 1985. Colleque du centennaire du Frère Marie-Victorin. Bull. Soc. Animat. Jard. Inst. Bot., Montreal 9(3): 1--94.

Barbour, M. G. 1969. Patterns of genetic similarity between Larrea divaricata of North and South America. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 81: 54--67.

Barbour, M. G. 1988. Californian upland forests and woodlands. In: M. G. Barbour and W. D. Billings, eds. 1988. North American Terrestrial Vegetation. New York. Pp. 131--164.

Barbour, M. G. 1992. Life at the leading edge: The beach plant syndrome. In: U. Seeliger, ed. 1992. Coastal Plant Communities of Latin America. San Diego. Pp. 291--307.

Barbour, M. G., N. H. Berg, G. F. Kittel, and M. E. Kunz. 1990. Snowpack and the distribution of a major vegetation ecotone in the Sierra Nevada of California. J. Biogeogr. 18: 141--149.

Barbour, M. G. and W. D. Billings, eds. 1988. North American Terrestrial Vegetation. New York.

Barbour, M. G., J. H. Burk, and W. D. Pitts. 1987. Terrestrial Plant Ecology, ed. 2. Palo Alto.

Barbour, M. G., T. M. De Jong, and A. F. Johnson. 1975. Additions and corrections to a review of North American Pacific coast beach vegetation. Madroño 23: 130--134.

Barbour, M. G., T. M. De Jong, and B. M. Pavlik. 1985. Marine beach and dune plant communities. In: B. F. Chabot and H. A. Mooney, eds. 1985. Physiological Ecology of North American Plant Communities. New York. Pp. 296--322.

Barbour, M. G. and A. F. Johnson. 1988. Beach and dune. In: M. G. Barbour and J. Major, eds. 1988. Terrestrial Vegetation of California, ed. 2. Sacramento. Pp. 223--261.

Barbour, M. G. and J. Major, eds. 1988. Terrestrial Vegetation of California, ed. 2. Sacramento.

Barbour, M. G. and R. A. Minnich. 1990. The myth of chaparral conversion. Israel J. Bot. 39: 453--463.

Barbour, M. G., M. Rejmanek, A. F. Johnson, and B. M. Pavlik. 1987. Beach vegetation and plant distribution patterns along the northern Gulf of Mexico. Phytocoenologia 15: 201--233.

Barbour, M. G. and R. H. Robichaux. 1976. Beach phytomass along the California coast. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 103: 16--20.

Barbour, M. G. and R. A. Woodward. 1985. The Shasta red fir forest of California. Canad. J. Forest Res. 15: 570--576.

Barkley, T. M. 1983. Field Guide to the Common Weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, Kans.

Barkworth, M. E. and D. R. Dewey. 1985. Genomically based genera in the perennial Triticeae of North America: Identification and membership. Amer. J. Bot. 72: 767--776.

Barnosky, C. W. 1987. Response of vegetation to climatic changes of different duration in the late Neogene. Trends Ecol. Evol. 2: 247--250.

Barnosky, C. W., P. M. Anderson, and P. J. Bartlein. 1987. The northwestern U.S. during deglaciation; vegetational history and paleoclimatic implications. In: W. F. Ruddiman and H. E. Wright Jr., eds. 1987. North America and Adjacent Oceans during the Last Deglaciation. Boulder. Pp. 289--321.

Barry, J. M. 1980. Natural Vegetation of South Carolina. Columbia.

Barry, W. J. 1972. The Central Valley Prairie. Vol. 1. California Prairie Ecosystem. Sacramento.

Bartel, J. A. 1987. The federal listing of rare and endangered plants: What is involved and what does it mean? In: T. S. Elias, ed. 1987. Conservation and Management of Rare and Endangered Plants. Sacramento. Pp. 15--22.

Bartlein, P. J. 1988. Late-Tertiary and Quaternary palaeoenvironments. In: B. Huntley and T. Webb III, eds. 1988. Vegetation History. Dordrecht. Pp. 113--152.

Batten, D. J. 1984. Palynology, climate and the development of late Cretaceous floral provinces in the Northern Hemisphere; a review. In: P. Brenchley, ed. 1984. Fossils and Climate. New York. Pp. 127--164.

Baur, E. 1932. Artumgrenzung und Artbildung in der Gattung Antirrhinum Sektion Antirrhinastrum. Z. Indukt. Abstammungs- Vererbungsl. 63: 256--302.

Baye, P. R. 1990. Comparative Growth Responses and Population Ecology of European and American Beach Grasses (Ammophila spp.) in Relation to Sand Accretion and Salinity. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Western Ontario.

Bayer, R. J. 1985. Investigations into the evolutionary history of the polyploid complexes in Antennaria (Asteraceae Inuleae) I. The A. neodioica complex. Pl. Syst. Evol. 150: 143--163.

Bayer, R. J. 1985b. Investigations into the evolutionary history of the polyploid complexes in Antennaria (Asteraceae Inuleae) II. The A. parlinii complex. Rhodora 87: 321--329.

Bazzaz, F. A. 1986. Life history of colonizing plants: Some demographic, genetic, and physiologic features. In: H. A. Mooney and J. A. Drake, eds. 1986. Ecology of Biological Invasions of North America and Hawaii. New York. Pp. 96--110.

Bean, R. C., C. D. Richards, and F. Hyland. 1966. Revised checklist of the vascular plants of Maine. Bull. Josselyn Bot. Soc. Maine 8.

Beatley, J. C. 1975. Climates and vegetation patterns across the Mojave/Great Basin desert transition of southern Nevada. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 93: 53--70.

Becker, H. F. 1961. Oligocene plants from the upper Ruby River Basin, southwestern Montana. Mem. Geol. Soc. Amer. 82.

Behnke, H.-D. 1976. Ultrastructure of sieve-element plastids in Caryophyllales (Centrospermae), evidence for delimitation and classification of the order. Pl. Syst. Evol. 126: 31--54.

Bell, W. A. 1949. Uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene floras of western Canada. Bull. Geol. Surv. Canada 13.

Benson, L. and R. S. Thompson. 1987. The physical record of lakes in the Great Basin. In: W. F. Ruddiman and H.E. Wright Jr., eds. 1987. North America and Adjacent Oceans during the Last Deglaciation. Boulder. Pp. 241--260.

Benson, L. D. 1943. Revisions of status of southwestern trees and shrubs. Amer. J. Bot. 30: 230--240.

Benson, L. D. 1962. Plant Taxonomy, Methods and Principles. New York.

Bentham, G. and J. D. Hooker. 1862--1883. Genera Plantarum ad Exemplaria Imprimis in Herbariis Kewensibus Servata Definita. 3 vols. London.

Berg, C. C. 1977. Urticales, their differentiation and systematic position. Pl. Syst. Evol., Suppl. 1: 349--374.

Berger, A. L. 1978. Long-term variations of caloric insolation resulting from the earth's orbital elements. Quatern. Res. 9: 139--167.

Berggren, W. A. and C. D. Hollister. 1974. Paleogeography, paleobiogeography and the history of circulation in the Atlantic Ocean. In: W. W. Hay, ed. 1974. Studies in Paleooceanography. Tulsa. Pp. 126--186.

Berkeley, E. and D. S. Berkeley. 1963. John Clayton, Pioneer of American Botany. Chapel Hill.

Berkeley, E. and D. S. Berkeley. 1969. Dr. Alexander Garden of Charles Town. Chapel Hill.

Berkeley, E. and D. S. Berkeley. 1982. The Life and Travels of John Bartram, from Lake Ontario to the River St. John. Tallahassee.

Bernabo, J. C. and T. Webb III. 1977. Changing patterns in the Holocene pollen record of northeastern North America: A mapped summary. Quatern. Res. 84: 64--96.

Bertness, M. D. and A. M. Ellison. 1987. Determinants of pattern in a New England salt marsh plant community. Ecol. Monogr. 57: 129--147.

Bessey, C. E. 1897. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the angiosperms. Bot. Gaz. 34: 145--178.

Bessey, C. E. 1915. The phylogenetic taxonomy of flowering plants. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 2: 109--164.

Betancourt, J. L., T. R. Van Devender, and P. S. Martin, eds. 1990. Packrat Middens: The Last 40,000 Years of Biotic Change. Tucson.

Bharadwaj, D. C. et al., eds. [1978--1981.] Proceedings. Fourth International Palynological Conference [Lucknow, India, 1976--1977]. 3 vols. Lucknow.

Bierhorst, D. W. 1971. Morphology of Vascular Plants. New York.

Billings, W. D. 1949. The shadscale vegetation zone of Nevada and eastern California in relation to climate and soils. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 42: 87--109.

Billings, W. D. 1951. Vegetational zonation in the Great Basin of western North America. In: International Union of Biological Sciences. 1951. Les Bases Ecologiques de la Regeneration de la Vegetation des Zones Arides. On the Ecological Foundations of the Regeneration of Vegetation in Arid Zones [Symposium] Stockholm, Juillet 1950. Paris. Pp. 101--122.

Billings, W. D. 1974. Adaptations and origins of alpine plants. Arctic Alpine Res. 6: 129--142.

Billings, W. D. 1988. Alpine vegetation. In: M. G. Barbour and W. D. Billings, eds. 1988. North American Terrestrial Vegetation. New York. Pp. 401--420.

Billington, R. A. 1982. Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier, ed. 2. New York and London.

Biótica = Biótica; Publicación del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones sobre Recursos Bióticos.

Bird, J. B. 1980. The Natural Landscapes of Canada, ed. 2. Toronto.

Birkeland, P. W. 1984. Soils and Geomorphology. New York.

Birkeland, P. W., R. M. Burke, and J. C. Yount. 1976. Preliminary comments on late Cenozoic glaciations in the Sierra Nevada. In: W. C. Mahaney, ed. 1976. Quaternary Stratigraphy of North America. Stroudsburg, Pa. Pp. 283--295.

Black, R. A. and L. C. Bliss. 1978. Recovery sequence of Picea mariana/Vaccinium uliginosum forests after burning near Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 56: 2020--2030.

Black, R. A. and L. C. Bliss. 1980. Reproductive ecology of Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P. at treeline near Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada. Ecol. Monogr. 50: 331--354.

Blackmore, S. and I. K. Ferguson, eds. 1986. Pollen and Spores: Form and Function. London.

Bliss, L. C. 1963. Alpine plant communities of the Presidential Range, New Hampshire. Ecology 44: 678--697.

Bliss, L. C. 1981. North American and Scandanavian tundras and polar deserts. In: L. C. Bliss et al., eds. 1981. Tundra Ecosystems: A Comparative Analysis. New York. Pp. 8--24.

Bliss, L. C. 1988. Arctic tundra and polar desert biome. In: M. G. Barbour and W. D. Billings, eds. 1988. North American Terrestrial Vegetation. New York. Pp. 1--32.

Bliss, L. C., O. W. Heal, and J. J. Moore, eds. 1981. Tundra Ecosystems: A Comparative Analysis. New York.

Bliss, L. C. and J. Svoboda. 1984. Plant communities and plant production in the western Queen Elizabeth Islands. Holarc. Ecol. 7: 324--344.

Blunt, W. and W. T. Stearn. 1971. The Compleat Naturalist: A Life of Linnaeus. London.

Böcher, T. W., K. Holmen, and K. Jakobsen. 1968. The Flora of Greenland, ed. 2. Copenhagen.

Boellstorff, J. 1978. North American Pleistocene stages reconsidered in light of probable Pliocene-Pleistocene continental glaciation. Science 202: 305--307.

Boivin, B. 1967. Énumération des plantes du Canada. VII---Résumé statistique et régions adjacentes. Naturaliste Canad. 94: 625--655.

Boivin, B. 1968. Énumération des plantes du Canada. Provancheria 6.

Booth, D. B. 1987. Timing and processes of deglaciation along the southern margin of the Cordilleran ice sheet. In: W. F. Ruddiman and H. E. Wright Jr., eds. 1987. North America and Adjacent Oceans during the Last Deglaciation. Boulder. Pp. 71--90.

Borchert, M. T., F. W. Davis, J. Michaelsen, and L. D. Oyler. 1989. Interactions of factors affecting seedling recruitment of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) in California. Ecology 70: 389--404.

Bot. Gaz. = Botanical Gazette; Paper of Botanical Notes.

Bot. Helv. = Botanica Helvetica.

Bot. J. Linn. Soc. = Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society.

Bot. Jahrb. Syst. = Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie.

Bot. Not. = Botaniska Notiser.

Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) = Botanical Review, Interpreting Botanical Progress.

Bovis, M. J. 1987. The interior mountains and plateaus. In: W. L. Graf, ed. 1987. Geomorphic Systems of North America. Boulder. Pp. 469--515.

Bowen, D. Q. 1985. Quaternary Geology, a Stratigraphic Framework for Multidisciplinary Work. Oxford.

Bower, F. O. 1894. A theory of the strobilus in archegoniate plants. Ann. Bot. (London) 8: 343--365.

Bowers, J. E. 1984. Plant geography of southwestern sand dunes. Desert Pl. 6: 21--42.

Box, E. O. 1981. Macroclimate and Plant Forms: An Introduction to Predictive Modeling in Phytogeography. The Hague, Boston, and Hingham, Mass. [Tasks for Vegetation Science. Vol. 1.]

Boyd, R. S. and M. G. Barbour. 1986. Relative salt tolerance of Cakile edentula from lacustrine and marine beaches. Amer. J. Bot. 73: 236--241.

Brakenridge, G. R. 1978. Evidence for a cold, dry full-glacial climate in the American Southwest. Quatern. Res. 9: 22--40.

Bramwell, D., O. Hamann, V. H. Heywood, and H. Synge, eds. 1987. Botanic Gardens and World Conservation Strategy. London.

Braun, E. L. 1950. Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America. Philadelphia.

Breckton, G. J. and M. G. Barbour. 1974. Review of North American Pacific coast beach vegetation. Madroño 22: 333--360.

Brenchley, P., ed. 1984. Fossils and Climate. New York.

Bretting, P. K. and G. P. Nabhan. 1986. Ethnobotany of devil's claw (Proboscidea parviflora ssp. parviflora) in the greater Southwest. J. Calif. & Great Basin Anthropol. 8: 226--237.

Bridson, G. D. R. and E. R. Smith. 1991. B-P-H/S. Botanico-Periodicum- Huntianum/Supplementum. Pittsburgh.

British Columbia Ministry of Forests. 1988. Biogeoclimatic Zones of British Columbia. Victoria.

Britton, N. L. 1901. Manual of the Flora of the Northern States and Canada. New York.

Britton, N. L., L. M. Underwood, W. A. Murrill, J. H. Barnhart, and H. W. Rickett, eds. 1905--1972. North American Flora.... 42 vols. New York. [Vols. 1--34, 1905--1957; Ser. 2, Vols. 1--8, 1954--1972.]

Brittonia = Brittonia; a Journal of Systematic Botany....

Broecker, W. S. and G. H. Denton. 1989. The role of ocean-atmosphere reorganizations in glacial cycles. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 53: 2465-- 2501.

Broecker, W. S. and J. van Donk. 1970. Insolation changes, ice volumes, and O18 record in deep sea cores. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 8: 169--198.

Brooks, R. E. 1983. Trifolium stoloniferum, running buffalo clover: Description, distribution and current status. Rhodora 85: 343--354.

Brophy, W. B. and D. R. Parnell. 1974. Hybridization between Quercus agrifolia and Quercus wislizenii (Fagaceae). Madroño 22: 290--302.

Brown, D. E. 1982. Great Basin conifer woodland. Desert Pl. 4: 52--57.

Brown, D. E. 1982b. Great Basin montane scrubland. Desert Pl. 4: 83--84.

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