FLORA OF NORTH AMERICA - Newsletter - Vol 7, No 1

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Volume 7, Number 1
January-February-March 1993

by Nancy R. Morin and Judith M. Unger, co-editors

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FLORA OF NORTH AMERICA NEWS

Organizational Center

Revised Guides for Contributors have been mailed to all accepted authors for treatments of taxa in Volume 11 and subsequent volumes (Check FNA Newsletter 6(2):10 for order of publication of volumes). Accepted reviewers for Volume 3 treatments and remaining volumes are also being sent revised Guides. If you have not received your revised guide, please call Judy Unger at 314/577-9515. By accepted authors/reviewers, we mean those who have contacted Dr. Nancy Morin or others at the Organizational Center informing us of their intention to write/review treatments of taxa for which they received an official invitation.

A Bryophyte Character List will be included with Guides mailed to bryologists who accept an invitation to write treatment(s) for Volume 13.

Regional review is in process. The first batch of manuscripts were mailed to accepted regional reviewers on April 12. Of the 47 invitations to botanists in all parts of the U.S. and Canada, and a few in Europe (for Greenland), about 30 have accepted and will be sent manuscripts for taxa occurring in their geographic area of expertise. This process provides a means of checking distributional information sometimes not available to smaller taxonomic and floristic projects. Regional reviewers are asked to check distributional information, both in the distribution statement and on the distribution map. They also check that keys work using plants in their area, and that all taxa occurring in their area are treated.

Concurrently, taxonomic reviewers check that scientific information, in both the description and key, is accurate. They are also asked to check that the discussion paragraph reflects accurate and pertinent information and is reasonably complete. They also check the accuracy of the illustrations. Maps and illustrations will be sent with manuscripts going out for review, if at all possible. Of course, both types of reviewers are welcome to comment on any aspect of a treatment.

Influential Plants Discussed in FNA Treatments - An important, but often neglected, part of an FNA treatment is the discussion that follows the taxonomic description. Here one should find information on taxonomic controversy or uncertainty, unusual and interesting aspects of the plant's biology, and brief notes on the taxon's impact on human life. Weeds and poisonous plants are examples of negative impact. Positive impact includes the use of plants for horticultural, medicinal, and other ethnobotanical purposes. In the Organizational Center, documented basic information on traditional Native American medicinal uses of plants is being added to the discussion section of the volume three treatments. This information is being extracted from Medicinal Plants of Native America (Moerman 1986), and from Medical Botany - Plants Affecting Man's Health (Lewis and Elvin-Lewis 1977) For example, the roasted and mashed seeds of Argemone munita (Papaveraceae) have been used by the Kawaiisu tribe as a salve to treat burns (Moerman 1986 1:55). To complement ethnobotanical information, English, French (Canadian), and Spanish (US) common names are being added.

Examples of references on plants affecting people include:

Bailey, Liberty H. 1943 (and other years). The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture. The Macmillan Company, New York; Kingsbury, John M. 1964. Poisonous Plants of the United States and Canada. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey; Lewis, Walter and Memory P. F. Elvin-Lewis. 1977. Medical Botany - Plants Affecting Man's Health. John Wiley & Sons, New York; Moerman, Daniel E. 1986. Medicinal Plants of Native America. vol. 1 & 2. University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor; Sargent, Charles S. 1905. Manual of the Trees of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., New York; Standley, Paul C. 1920-1926. Trees and Shrubs of Mexico. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 23(1-5): 1-1721; Vines, Robert A. 1960. Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of the Southwest. Univ. Texas Press, Austin. --by Dr. Denis Kearns, FNA postdoc, and Ms. Carol Davit, assistant to Dr. Morin

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The Flora of North America (FNA) project is a cooperative program to produce a Flora of the plants of North America north of Mexico. The FNA Newsletter is published quarterly by the Flora of North America Association to communicate news about the FNA project and other topics of interest to North American floristic researchers. Readers are invited to send appropriate news items to: FNA Newsletter, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166, U.S.A.

MANUSCRIPTS RECEIVED
between 1 January 1993 and 15 April 1993

Volume 3
Michael Vincent: Schisandraceae
Donald Les: Ceratophyllaceae
David Whetstone and Tim Atkinson: Achlys, Nandina,




and Vancouveria

David Whetstone: Diphylleia
John Thieret and John Kartesz: Lardizabalaceae

Volume 11
Robert Faden: Commelinaceae - 11 genera
William Crins: Carex sect. Phyllostachyae
John Packer: Tofieldia, Triantha, and Pleea
Charles Sheviak: Cypripedium



Volume 5
John Thieret: Napaea

Volume 6
David Whetstone and Christopher Nixon: Chrysobalanaceae

Volume 7
Michael Moore: Vitaceae

Volume 8
George Yatskievych: Lennoaceae

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Undergraduate Internships for Flora of North America - Flora of North America has received supplemental funding from the National Science Foundation to support undergraduate interns in 1993 at Missouri Botanical Garden. Internships are available for any academic term. Interested undergraduates who have had courses in basic botany and plant taxonomy should send a résumé and name and telephone number of their undergraduate advisor to Dr. Nancy Morin, Flora of North America, Missouri Botanical Garden, P. O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166 by May 31. Candidates will be notified of their acceptance by June 15.

FNA ITEMS for sale include:

T-shirts, all cotton, white: only S and M; teal: only L and XL $9
green coffee mugs $7
cloisonne lapel pins $5
white painter's caps $2
wheat or white rectangular buttons with habit of Floerkea $1

For delivery, add $2 each (for T-shirts and mugs) for postage and handling, all prepaid please.

Editorial Committee

CompEd Committee Formed for Volume 10 (Asteraceae) - The current taxonomy of the composites (Asteraceae) derives largely from circumscriptions and placements proposed by George Bentham. For North American composites, current taxonomy is, perhaps, best exemplified in floristic treatments by Arthur Cronquist (e.g., Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest, Manual of Vascular plant of Northeastern U.S. and adjacent Canada). Cronquist's floristic treatments are models of clarity in presentation and provide standards of excellence for our generation.

For production of the FNA treatment of composites (Vol. 10 - Asteraceae), a committee of Ted Barkley, Luc Brouillet, and John Strother (CompEd) has been formed to serve as taxon editors for the family and to assist contributors in hewing to established standards of excellence. Members of CompEd will set initial circumscriptions and tribal placements and will prepare draft descriptions for all genera of composites to be recognized in FNA. Because the members of CompEd are convinced the Flora of North America should employ taxonomic concepts that reflect the best understanding that is available, some circumscriptions and tribal placements adopted by CompEd may differ significantly from tradition.

Although circumscriptions and tribal placements of most genera of composites have been stable since Bentham's time, the past quarter century or so has seen an abundance of literature addressing problems of generic circumscriptions and tribal placements of some problematic groups of Compositae. These publications reflect new information plus application of new techniques and ideologies for utilizing the information. Particularly significant have been biochemical analyses, especially DNA studies, and the use of cladistic methods to create justifiable phylogenetic postulates. A result has been support for many long-standing circumscriptions and tribal placements and substantial remodeling of others. The recent research has very seldom led to changes in circumscriptions or placements of individual species; it is clusters of species (e.g., genera, subgenera, and sections) that have been notably re-aligned. In future classifications, Compositae will almost certainly comprise moderately greater numbers of tribes and genera.

Tribal placements, circumscriptions, and descriptions wrought by members of CompEd are intended only to be starting points for contributors and are intended to assure that genera are treated evenly and uniformly across the family. Contributors are expected to correct errors and oversights found in the initial descriptions. Similarly, contributors are expected to return any "misassigned species" (i.e., species assigned to a wrong genus) to the appropriate editor.

Because results of recent research have sometimes been used to justify segregating small, evidently monophyletic groups from traditionally large and, presumably, polyphyletic genera, members of CompEd are concerned that recognition of segregates may sometimes leave horribly mutilated "residue genera." Therefore, a segregate genus will not be adopted by CompEd unless all of the species traditionally included in the larger genus have been considered in the study that proposes the segregate. For example, segregates of Artemisia, Aster, and Haplopappus will not be adopted unless all of the relevant species in our flora are satisfactorily accounted for by proponents of the segregates. It is hoped that adherence to such a philosophy will prevent the pruning away of various segregates from a large, heterogeneous genus while leaving a residue of miscellaneous and mis-matched species. It is further hoped that all species of a genus under revision can be accounted for at approximately equal levels of understanding.

The traditional taxonomic system rests upon an understanding and interpretation of natural relationships. As understanding improves and interpretations change, taxonomic classifications change. Changes in classifications commonly result in changes in nomenclature. Many users of FNA will be nonsystematists who are not greatly moved by the systematist's desire to repeatedly add subtle improvements to existing phylogenetic postulates, especially "improvements" that result in name changes. They want a single, immutable handle attached to each kind of plant.

Everyone concerned with plants requires a stable nomenclature in order to communicate effectively. A purported strength of FNA is the promise of a uniform nomenclatural base for the flora of North America north of Mexico. The nomenclatural implications of changes in the classification of composites will not be taken lightly by members of CompEd. Members of the committee consider it a practical matter to regard "history" as a kind of taxonomic character. Consequently, members of CompEd will not accept a deviation from traditional nomenclature unless a clear justification and explanation for the change is provided.

As this is written, contributing authors for groups of composites are being solicited informally. Inquiries from other potential contributors are welcome. Formal invitations to contributors will be sent by the Convening Editor of FNA as the project progresses. -- The CompEd Committee

COMPUTER NEWS

FNA - For all of you e-mail junkies, here are the Internet email addresses for all the full-time staff at the FNA Organizational Center! In addition, there are two addresses that you should know about:

fna@mobot.org general FNA related questions and/or comments to be addressed by the Organizational Center staff
fnanews@mobot.org news items or questions for the quarterly FNA Newsletter
morin@mobot.org Dr. Nancy R. Morin, Convening Editor
parfitt@mobot.org Dr. Bruce D. Parfitt, Managing Editor and Scientific Editor
jeude@mobot.org Helen K. Jeude, Technical Editor
kama@mobot.org Deborah L. Kama, Database Manager
lawrence@mobot.org Mary H. Lawrence, Secretary
unger@mobot.org Judith M. Unger, Project Coordinator
kearns@mobot.org Dr. Denis M. Kearns, Post-Doc
whittemo@mobot.org Dr. Alan T. Whittemore, Post-Doc

Though new to the Internet arena, FNA has long seen the advantages of e-mail. A lot of you know that Dr. Robert E. Magill, co-developer and sole architect of TROPICOS, the RDBMS used by MO, wrote the e-mail program that we still use today to keep in touch with FNA Editorial Committee members on administrative and technical issues. Thank you Bob!

* * *

I'd like some feedback: should FNA start up a list server hosting various discussion groups on anything related to plants in the FNA area? And if so, should discussions be limited to the FNA area? Who of you out there would subscribe? What plant-related topics would interest you the most? Would we have to limit subscriptions?

As I mentioned earlier, FNA already provides and will continue to provide a private forum for Editorial Committee members where members discuss administrative and technical issues related to the production of the volumes. Can FNA be doing more and yet not duplicate any of the existing discussion groups found throughout the Internet system?

Send your opinions to kama@mobot.org. I look forward to hearing from any of you!

* * *

Not long ago, the Botanical Information Management Department here at MO (known as BIM by us locals) began support of a public access Wide Area Information Server (WAIS). Some of us hardy types have been experimenting with placing data into it for public consumption. Christine McMahon, BIM Department Head, acknowledges that the public user interface needs more work but that hasn't kept those of us working with data from bubbling over with excitement!

Currently, WAIS contains data from: the Index of Plant Chromosome Numbers published at MO; FNA accepted gymnosperm names that are in FNA volume 2 (Sept. 1993!); US Index Herbariorum entries.

NYBG's Pat and Noel Holmgren submitted the Index Herbariorum entries for the United States and Noel had this to say about their experimental writing of data to WAIS:

"... [the entries] consist of mailing addresses, phone numbers, fax numbers, and e-mail addresses for all staff. There is nothing about the herbaria they come from except the acronym. What is in the WAIS file is updated and enhanced somewhat, so it has value to even those possessing copies of the latest edition of IH. We want to make some improvements in what is in WAIS or how it can be accessed before we add other countries."

Currently, the FNA Gymnosperm entries consist of FNA accepted gymnosperm names with place of publication and publishing author(s), family, family common name, common name(s) of the accepted gymnosperm name, FNA designated synonyms, chromosome number, and distribution. Also included in each entry is the name of the contributing author and the name of the FNA Taxon Editor responsible for guiding that particular family to completion.

To see what's available, you can access the MO WAIS located on the MO IBM system by modem or by telneting to mobot.org. To reach the MO IBM system by modem, dial (314) 577-5181, and set your communications parameters to 1 stop bit, 8 data bits, full duplex, and no parity. 1200-9600 baud rates are supported. If you have TELNET capability, just TELNET to mobot.org. At the login prompt, enter wais (lowercase). The system will not prompt for a password; however, it will ask for the type of terminal you are using. Terminal emulations vt100 or viewpoint are acceptable.

Send "How to use?" questions, and general questions or comments about MO WAIS to mcmahon@mobot.org. IPCN data questions should be sent to magill@mobot.org; send FNA gymnosperm data questions to me, kama@mobot.org; pholmgre@nybg.org and nholmgre@nybg.org await your Index Herbariorum questions. All of us data providers would love to know how we can make presentation of our information more useful to you.

* * *

All e-mail users should know about the service provided by Jane Mygatt, Assistant Curator of the UNM Herbarium, called Plant Taxonomists OnLine (PTO). The PTO is an electronically distributed list of people along with their physical and electronic addresses. If you're not already on the list and have already been bitten by the e-mail bug, why not drop Jane a note at JMYGATT@UNMB (Bitnet) or JMYGATT@BOOTES.UNM.EDU (Internet) and ask for a copy? There's no charge. --Deborah Kama

* * * * * * *

The Carnegie Museum of Natural History herbarium (CM) maintains a database of all plant specimens at CM collected in Pennsylvania. This database presently contains over 120,000 records, all based on individual specimens and updated as specimens are annotated or re-determined. Former CM staff members extensively collected plants in western Pennsylvania and thus CM has the most complete representation of plants from this region.

A database of CM specimens from outside Pennsylvania is in the beginning stage. It includes all primary types and isotypes, collections made by current staff members, and miscellaneous other specimens, including over 60% of Orchidaceae specimens. There are presently almost 30,000 records entered.

Although researchers are encouraged to examine CM specimens firsthand, data requests will be considered. Address requests to Sue Thompson, Section of Botany, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 4400 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213; FAX 412-622-8837.

NEWS AND NOTES

FLORA NEOMEXICANA A Fertile Field for Discovery by Robert Sivinski, New Mexico Forestry Division. (Condensed from the Native Plant Society of New Mexico Newsletter March/April 1993 Volume XVIII Number 2) - New Mexico is a fertile field for botanical discovery. The great variety of geology, climate, and elevation creates a wealth of unique habitats for floristic diversity. Our large state has many out-of-the-way places and relatively few botanists. There are still areas of New Mexico that have not received adequate floristic scrutiny by professional or amateur botanists in the field. Therefore, it is not uncommon for several new state records to be added to our flora each year. What is surprising, however, are the numerous newly described plants that have been recently discovered in our state. The possibility that there may yet be undescribed species out there is demonstrated by the discovery or publication of more than twenty new species and a varieties since the Flora of New Mexico (Martin & Hutchins, 1980) was published. The following is a brief summary of these exciting new finds.

The genus Astragalus (milkvetch) in the Pea Family (Fabaceae) is well represented in our state by more than seventy species. Three new New Mexican species have been recently added to this genus. Astragalus knightii Barneby (Knight's milkvetch) was discovered on sandstone outcrops within the Rio Puerco drainage of Sandoval County. It is named for Paul Knight, the New Mexican botanist who found this plant. Astragalus kerrii Knight & Cully (Kerr's milkvetch) was found in the foothills of the Capitan Mountains. Astragalus chuskanus Barneby & Spellenberg (Chuska milkvetch) is a new species endemic to the Chuska Mountains on the New Mexico/Arizona border.

The Aster Family (Asteraceae) is the largest plant family in New Mexico and most of our new species belong here. Senecio spellenbergii T. M. Barkley (Spellenberg's groundsel) was named for its collector, Dr. Richard Spellenberg of NMSU. Chaetoppa elegans Soreng & Spellenberg (Sierra Blanca cliff daisy) was discovered in the Sacramento Mountains and is know only from two small localities on Sierra Blanca. Also from our southern mountains, the new variety Perityle staurophylla (Barneby) Shinners var. homoflora Todsen (San Andres rock daisy) was located in several San Andres Mountain canyons and cliffs on White Sands Missile Range. Another new variety is Aster laevis L. var. guadalupensis A. G. Jones (Guadalupe Mountain aster).

The large Aster Family genus Erigeron (fleabane) also has several new species from New Mexico. Erigeron scopulinus Nesom & Roth (rock fleabane) was located on cliffs and rhyolitic outcrops in several localities in the Gila National Forest of New Mexico and in adjacent Arizona. Erigeron rybius Nesom (Sacramento Mountain fleabane) grows in the open woodlands and meadows of the Sacramento Mountains and was only recently recognized as something quite different from its nearest relative, E. rusbyi of the Mogollon Mountains. Further north, the new Erigeron acomanus Spellenberg & Knight (Acoma fleabane) was discovered on sandstone outcrops near the Acoma Pueblo Reservation. Finally, an obvious personal favorite of mine is Erigeron sivinskii Nesom (Sivinski's fleabane), which grows on shale outcrops in the Zuni Mountains near Fort Wayne.

In the Milkwort Family (Polygalaceae) the new variety Polygala rimulicola Steyer. var. mescalerorum Went & Todsen (Mescalero milkwort) was located on limestone in the San Andres Mountains. A new mustard (Brassicaceae), also on southern New Mexico limestones, is Sibara griesea Rollins (gray sibara). In the Dogbane Family (Apocynaceae), the new Amsonia fugatei McLaughlin (Fugate's amsonia) was discovered growing on conglomerate outcrops in Socorro County. In our northern mountains, Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus Wilken & Fletcher (Holy Ghost impomopsis) was discovered in a single canyon in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. This rare member of the Phlox Family (Polemoniaceae) has recently been proposed to be listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Stellaria porsildii C.C. Chinappa (Porsild's starwort) in the Pink Family (Caryophyllaceae) was recently found in the Pinos Altos Mountains of southwestern New Mexico and the Chiricahua Mountains in adjacent Arizona. [ed. comment: Dr. Rich Spellenberg and Dr. Ted Barkley are on the FNA Editorial Committee]

PUBLICATIONS

The new Jepson Manual (The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. James C. Hickman, ed. The University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. xviii + 1400 pp. 1993.)

The new Jepson Manual, subtitled "Higher Plants of California," was just published in February. It is a monumental achievement, and a worthy successor to the work of Munz of a generation ago, and its linear antecedent, Jepson's Manual of 1925. The new manual will soon become our generation's acknowledged authority for the plants of the richest floristic region in the country.

Anyone with more than a handful of years in botany can recall that the writing of a regional flora was once largely a one-man effort. As recently as 1959, the late Prof. P. A. Munz capably did just that. However, the eager enterprise of systematists has provided such an abundance of published information and herbarium specimens that it overwhelms the ken of a single floristicist. The future in floristics must be in collaborative efforts, and the new Jepson Manual is a model for such a project. It is the product of nearly 200 experts, specialists, committed generalists, and a dedicated staff. My hand in the Flora of the Great Plains, a much less extensive project that was also created by committee, lets me appreciate the complexities in assimilating and publishing the Jepson Manual. To paraphrase Samuel Johnson, it is not merely a matter of how well they could do it, but rather that they could do it at all. And, they did it very well.

The Jepson Manual is traditional in that it provides keys, descriptions, current nomenclature, and range statements for all of the vascular plants known to occur in California outside of cultivation. It is not traditional in that the Manual is intentionally designed to be "user friendly" so that the serious non-botanist may extract information and identify plants with a degree of confidence and ease. The Jepson Manual is intended to be a "People's Flora," and it gives all indication of succeeding at this admirable goal.

The Manual further supplies information on habitats, relative abundance, and the legal status of plants, i.e., if threatened, endangered, or legally noxious. The introductory chapters include essays on the geographic subdivision of California, on the geological history and changing landscapes, and on climates and how they affect the flora. The glossary includes several plates of line drawings to illustrate many of the more complex terms, and some terms are defined and then an example is cited, e.g. "tubercle. Small, wart-like projection, (example, Plagiobothrys hystriculus nutlet.)" Then in the text, the illustrations show a nutlet of P. hystriculus with its tubercles indicated. A nice touch.

The California flora is so rich and complicated that any modern account of it could be justified as a several-volume work. However, the Jepson Manual was conceived at the start as a 1-volume affair and thus some rather ruthless abbreviation was inevitable. The nearly 200 contributors and other participants in the project occasionally made jocular comments translating their traditionally written MSS from "Bot-Speak" into "Jep-Speak," (I was one of those contributors), but it is a pleasure to note that "Jep-Speak" works. The descriptions are terse to be certain, but they clearly communicate the needed information. Furthermore, they include abbreviated but accurate statements of habitat and distribution, and many have information about cultivation. Distributional data and information on cultivation are explained more fully in separate introductory essays.

The one-volume constraint naturally prevented the illustration of every single entity, but each genus is illustrated by line drawings for one or more species. The drawings were conceived "to corroborate understanding of keys and descriptions, as well as to be easily browsed, independently of the text." The drawings are necessarily small, but with the stated goals in mind, they succeed admirably.

Does the Manual have any flaws? No doubt, it does, for typographical errors and a few inconsistencies, etc., are inevitable in any effort of this size and complexity. Such problems are likely to be minor, and they will work themselves out as people use the Manual. For the nonce it is more than enough to applaud the achievement of the Jepson Herbarium and all of the Manual project staff and participants. They brought it off! They have produced a Manual that will be useful to many people for years to come.

All of us contributors and the entire botanical community owe special thanks to the memory of the late Larry Heckard who long kept the idea of the Manual alive, to Jim Hickman who conceived the Manual and served as its editor, to Dieter Wilken who managed the completion of the project, and to Susan d'Alcamo who was seen by us contributors as an ever-able facilitator. --Theodore M. Barkley, FNA Editorial Committee

MEETINGS

Southwest Botanical Systematics Symposium - The Ninth Annual Southwestern Botanical Systematics Symposium will be held 28-29 May 1993. This year's topic is "Plant Reproductive Biology." Invited speakers include William L. Crepet, Cornell University; W. Scott Armbruster, University of Alaska; John F. Addicott, University of Alberta; Elizabeth M. Lord, University of California, Riverside; Allison Snow, Ohio State University, C. Thomas Philbrick, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. The evening address will be given by Robert Ornduff, University of California, Berkeley.

The cost to attend is $50.00 per participant ($45.00 per student). This includes the Friday evening social, continental breakfast, boxed lunch, and banquet dinner on Saturday. To register, send your name, address, and telephone or fax number, with a check for the proper amount payable to Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden to RSABG, Systematics Symposium, 1500 North College Avenue, Claremont, California 91711. There will be no refunds after May 14, 1993. For more information, please call 909/625-8767, ext. 251. Be sure to register early as space is limited.

POSITIONS AVAILABLE

Fairchild Botanical Garden seeks Herbarium Curator to: maintain the herbarium (including processing of loans, evaluating incoming material, keeping records, supervising volunteer technicians, and performing pest management); consult with Horticulture and Public Garden Departments concerning taxonomic problems and interpretive displays; identify native and cultivated tropical plants for the public; expand the herbarium by vouchering the living collections and documenting the Florida and Caribbean floras; and teach short courses. The successful candidate will be encouraged to participate in the Flora of Florida and/or Flora of the Greater Antilles projects.

Qualifications: Master's degree in Botany or B.S. with equivalent training; experience in a major herbarium; knowledge of or the ability to quickly learn the Floridian and West Indian floras and the cultivated members of tropical families; and ability to interact well with horticulturists, researchers, volunteers, and the public.

FAIRCHILD TROPICAL GARDEN also seeks a Palm Biologist to establish and maintain an active research program in the biology of palms using the living collection at FTG and field studies; consult with the Curator of Palms and the Herbarium Curator to strengthen and improve the living and preserved collections; participate in the Garden's education and outreach programs; and seek funding for program development. Qualifications: Ph.D. degree; experience with palms; strong publication record.

Both positions are to begin mid-1993. For either position, send cover letter and resume with names and phone numbers of three references before April 15, 1993 to: Dr. Jack Fisher, Chair of Botanical Sciences, Fairchild Tropical Garden, 11935 Old Cutler Road, Miami, FL 33156, Telephone: 305/6765-2844; FAX: 305/665-8032. Fairchild Tropical Garden is a non-profit research institution and display botanical garden of 83 acres featuring palms, cycads and a diverse collection of other tropical families. It has comprehensive tropical botany library and herbarium of 65,000 specimens featuring the plants of Florida, the Caribbean, and tropical horticulture.*

* * * * * * *

The American Orchid Society (AOS) seeks highly motivated, recognized orchid authority with strong organizational, managerial and communication skills for the position of Director of Education & Conservation to develop and supervise the Society's educational- and conservation-related programs. The broad nature of these concerns will involve close coordination with relevant AOS committees, the Society's editor, manager of information services and the executive director, to whom the director of education and conservation will report. The candidate should possess outstanding taxonomic, botanical, and horticultural expertise; excellent writing and speaking skills; a thorough understanding of CITES and current conservation trends; the ability to research and prepare grant proposals; computer programming and word processing skills; and be familiar with current research in the Orchidaceae. He or she will work closely with the Society's staff and members, and the public, and strive to develop educational and conservation programs and products that benefit the Society and the general public at both the local and national level. Original research will not be a part of this service-oriented position.

Applicants should possess a M.S. or Ph.D. or equivalent experience. Qualified and interested applicants should direct an appropriate cover letter and curriculum vitae no later than 15 June 1993, to the attention of Lee S. Cooke, Executive Director, American Orchid Society, 6000 South Olive Avenue, West Palm Beach, Florida 33405 (phone 407-585-8666); fax 407-585-0654).*

*An Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer

VOLUME 11 FAMILIES AND GENERA

Families are listed taxonomically, genera alphabetically, as of March 1993.

Curators may contact authors directly if they wish their collections checked.

Butomaceae    
  Butomus Robert Haynes
Limnocharitaceae    
  Hydrocleys Robert Haynes
Alismataceae    
  Alisma Robert Haynes
  Echinodorus Robert Haynes
  Machaerocarpus Robert Haynes
  Sagittaria Robert Haynes
Hydrocharitaceae    
  Egeria Robert Haynes
  Elodea Robert Haynes
  Halophila Robert Haynes
  Hydrilla Robert Haynes
  Limnobium Robert Haynes
  Ottelia Robert Haynes
  Thalassia Robert Haynes
  Vallisneria Robert Haynes
Aponogetonaceae    
  Aponogeton Robert Haynes
Scheuchzeriaceae    
  Scheuchzeria Robert Haynes
Juncaginaceae    
  Lilaea Robert Haynes
  Triglochin Robert Haynes
Potamogetonaceae    
  Halodule Robert Haynes
  Phyllospadix Robert Haynes
  Potamogeton Robert Haynes
Ruppiaceae    
  Ruppia Robert Haynes
Najadaceae    
  Najas Robert Haynes
Zannichelliaceae    
  Zannichellia Robert Haynes
Posidoniaceae    
  Posidonia Robert Haynes
Cymodoceaceae    
  Cymodocea Robert Haynes
Zosteraceae    
  Zostera Robert Haynes
Arecaceae    
  Accelorraphe Scott Zona
  Coccothrinax Scott Zona
  Cocos Scott Zona
  Inodes Scott Zona
  Phoenix Scott Zona
  Pseudophoenix Scott Zona
  Rhapidophyllum Scott Zona
  Roystonea Scott Zona
  Sabal Scott Zona
  Serenoa Scott Zona
  Thrinax Scott Zona
  Washingtonia Scott Zona
Araceae    
  Acorus Sue Thompson
  Arisaema Sue Thompson
  Arum Sue Thompson
  Calla Sue Thompson
  Colocasia Sue Thompson
  Lysichiton Sue Thompson
  Orontium Sue Thompson
  Peltandra Sue Thompson
  Pinellia Sue Thompson
  Pistia Sue Thompson
  Symplocarpus Sue Thompson
  Syngonium Sue Thompson
  Zantedeschia Sue Thompson
Lemnaceae    
  Lemna Elias Landolt
  Spirodela Elias Landolt
  Wolffia Elias Landolt
  Wolfiella Elias Landolt

Xyridaceae

   
  Xyris Robert Kral
Mayacaceae    
  Mayaca John Thieret
Commelinaceae    
  Callisia Robert Faden
  Commelina Robert Faden
  Cuthbertia Robert Faden
  Gibasis Robert Faden
  Leiandra Robert Faden
  Murdannia Robert Faden
  Rhoeo Robert Faden
  Setcreasea Robert Faden
  Tinantia Robert Faden
  Tradescantia Robert Faden
  Zebrina Robert Faden
Eriocaulaceae    
  Eriocaulon Robert Kral
  Lachnocaulon Robert Kral
  Syngonanthus Robert Kral
Juncaceae    
  Juncus Ralph Brooks
Steve Clemants
  Luzula Janice Coffey Swab
Cyperaceae    
  Carex Charles Bryson
Peter Ball
Leo Bruederle
Paul Catling
Jacques Cayouette
Theodore Cochrane
William Crins
Debra Dunlop
Bruce Ford
Gary Larson
Joy Mastrogiuseppe
David Murray
Robert Naczi
Jeff Rettig
Anton Reznicek
Paul Rothrock
Lisa Standley
Heikki Toivonen
Marcia Waterway
Richard Whitkus
Daniel Wujek



















  Abildgaardia Robert Kral
  Bulbostylis Robert Kral
  Cladium Gordon Tucker
  Cymophyllus Anton Reznicek
  Cyperus Richard Carter
Gordon Tucker
  Dulichium Joy Mastrogiuseppe
  Eleocharis Jeremy Bruhl
Richard Carter
Francis Menapace

  Eriophorum Peter Ball
Daniel Wujek
  Fimbristylis Robert Kral
  Fuirena Robert Kral
  Hemicarpha Gordon Tucker
  Isolepis Galen Smith
  Kobresia Peter Ball
  Kyllinga Gordon Tucker
  Lipocarpha Gordon Tucker
  Oxycaryum Jeremy Bruhl
Richard Carter
  Rhynchospora Robert Kral
  Schoenoplectus Galen Smith
  Schoenus Gordon Tucker
  Scirpus Alfred Schuyler
William Crins
Galen Smith

  Scleria

John Fairey III

  Websteria Jeremy Bruhl
Richard Carter
Sparganiaceae    
  Sparganium Robert Kaul
Typhaceae    
  Typha Galen Smith
Bromeliaceae    
  Catopsis Gregory Brown
Harry Luther
  Guzmania Gregory Brown
Harry Luther
  Hechtia Gregory Brown
Harry Luther
  Tillandsia Gregory Brown
Harry Luther
Musaceae    
  Musa Richard Wunderlin
Zingiberaceae    
  Alpinia Richard Wunderlin
  Hedychium Richard Wunderlin
Cannaceae    
  Canna Helen Kennedy
Marantaceae    
  Maranta Helen Kennedy
  Thalia Helen Kennedy
Pontederiaceae    
  Eichhornia Charles Horn
  Heteranthera Charles Horn
  Monochoria Charles Horn
  Pontederia Charles Horn
Haemodoraceae    
  Lachnanthes Kenneth Robertson
  Lophiola Kenneth Robertson
Liliaceae    
  Aletris Victoria Sullivan
  Allium Dale McNeal
Terry Jacobsen
  Alstroemeria Walter Holmes
  Amaryllis Walter Holmes
  Amianthium Frederick Utech
  Androstephium James Reveal
  Anthericum James Reveal
Robert Cruden
  Asparagus Gerald Straley
  Asphodelus Gerald Straley
  Brodiaea Theodore Niehaus
  Calochortus Peggy Fiedler
  Camassia Thomas Ranker
  Chamaelirium Frederick Utech
  Chlorogalum Judith Jernstedt
  Clintonia Frederick Utech
  Colchicum C. D. Brickell
  Convallaria Frederick Utech
  Cooperia Walter Flory
  Crinum Walter Holmes
  Disporum Frederick Utech
  Echeandia Robert Cruden
  Eremocrinum James Reveal
  Erythronium Kenneth Robertson
  Fritillaria Bryan Ness
  Galanthus Gerald Straley
  Habranthus Walter Flory
  Harperocallis Loran Anderson
  Hastingsia Harry Sherman
Rudolph Becking
  Helonias Frederick Utech
  Hemerocallis Frederick Utech
  Hesperocallis Samuel Jones
  Hosta Samuel Jones
  Hymenocallis Walter Flory
Gerald Smith
  Hypoxis Alan Herndon
  Leucocrinum James Reveal
  Leucojum Gerald Straley
  Lilium Mark Skinner
  Lloydia James Reveal
  Lycoris Frederick Utech
  Maianthemum James LaFrankie
  Medeola Frederick Utech
  Melanthium Norlyn Bodkin
  Milla Dale McNeal
  Muilla James Reveal
  Muscari Gerald Straley
  Narcissus Gerald Straley
  Narthecium Frederick Utech
  Nothoscordum Terry Jacobsen
  Odontostomum Mark Skinner
  Ornithogalum Gerald Straley
  Pleea John Packer
  Polygonatum C. D. Brickell
  Schoenocaulon Dawn Frame
  Schoenolirion Harry Sherman
Rudolph Becking
  Scilla

John McNeill

  Scoliopus Frederick Utech
  Stenanthium Frederick Utech
  Streptopus Frederick Utech
  Tofieldia John Packer
  Triantha John Packer
  Trillium John Freeman
  Tulipa Gerald Straley
  Uvullaria Frederick Utech
Shoichi Kawano
  Veratrum James Zimmerman
  Xerophyllum Frederick Utech
  Zephyranthes Walter Flory
  Zigadenus James Zimmerman
Iridaceae    
  Alophia Peter Goldblatt
  Belamcanda Peter Goldblatt
  Chasmanthe Peter Goldblatt
  Crocosmia Peter Goldblatt
  Crocus Peter Goldblatt
  Freesia Peter Goldblatt
  Gladiolus Peter Goldblatt
  Herbertia Peter Goldblatt
  Iris Norlan Henderson
  Libertia Elizabeth McClintock
  Nemastylis Peter Goldblatt
  Olsynium Doug Henderson
Anita Cholewa
  Romulea Peter Goldblatt
  Salpingostylis Peter Goldblatt
  Sisyrinchium Anita Cholewa
Doug Henderson
  Sphenostigma Peter Goldblatt
  Watsonia Peter Goldblatt
Aloeaceae    
  Aloe Walter Holmes
Agavaceae    
  Agave James Reveal
  Cordyline William Hess
  Dasylirion David Bogler
  Dracaena William Hess
  Furcraea Susan Verhoek
  Hesperaloe Laurie Robbins
  Manfreda Susan Verhoek
  Nolina William Hess
  Sansevieria William Hess
  Yucca James Reveal
Laurie Robbins
William Hess

Stemonaceae    
  Croomia David Whetstone
Smilacaceae    
  Smilax Walter Holmes
Dioscoreaceae    
  Dioscorea Ihsan Al-Shehbaz
Burmanniaceae    
  Apteria Deborah Qualls-Lewis
  Burmannia Deborah Qualls-Lewis
  Thismia Deborah Qualls-Lewis
Orchidaceae
  Amerorchis Charles Sheviak
Paul Catling
  Aplectrum Charles Sheviak
Paul Catling
  Arethusa Charles Sheviak
Paul Catling
  Basiphyllaea Ruben Sauleda
Ralph Adams
  Beadlea Ruben Sauleda
Ralph Adams
  Beloglottis Paul Catling
Charles Sheviak
  Bletia Ruben Sauleda
Ralph Adams
  Brassia Mark Chase
  Bulbophyllum Ruben Sauleda
Ralph Adams
  Calopogon Paul Catling
  Calypso Charles Sheviak
Paul Catling
  Campylocentrum Ruben Sauleda
Ralph Adams
  Cephalanthera Charles Sheviak
Paul Catling
  Cleistes Paul Catling
Katherine Gregg
  Coeloglossum Charles Sheviak
Paul Catling
  Corallorhiza Lawrence Magrath
John Freudenstein
  Cranichis Ruben Sauleda
Ralph Adams
  Cypripedium Charles Sheviak
  Cyrtopodium Gustavo Romero
  Dactylorhiza Charles Sheviak
Paul Catling
  Deiregnye Paul Catling
Charles Sheviak
  Dichromanthus Paul Catling
Charles Sheviak
  Eltroplectris Ruben Sauleda
Ralph Adams
  Encyclia Eric Hagsater
  Epidendrum Eric Hagsater
  Epipactis Paul Catling
Charles Sheviak
  Eulophia Gustavo Romero
  Galeandra Gustavo Romero
  Galearis Charles Sheviak
Paul Catling
  Goodyera Jacquelyn Kallunki
  Govenia Edward Greenwood
  Habenaria Charles Sheviak
  Harrisella Ruben Sauleda
Ralph Adams
  Hexalectris Paul Catling
  Ionopsis Mark Chase
  Isotria Loyal Mehrhoff
Michael Homoya
  Leochilus Mark Chase
  Lepanthopsis Carl Luer
  Liparis Paul Catling
Charles Sheviak
  Listera Paul Catling
  Macradenia Mark Chase
  Malaxis Paul Catling
  Maxillaria John Atwood
  Mesadenus Paul Catling
  Oeceoclades Roger Hammer
  Oncidium Mark Chase
  Pelexia Ruben Sauleda
Ralph Adams
  Piperia James Ackerman
Randall Morgan
  Platanthera Charles Sheviak
  Platythelys Ruben Sauleda
Ralph Adams
  Pleurothallis Carl Luer
  Pogonia Charles Sheviak
Paul Catling
  Polyrrhiza Ruben Sauleda
Ralph Adams
  Polystachya Ruben Sauleda
Ralph Adams
  Ponthieva Ruben Sauleda
Ralph Adams
  Prescottia Ruben Sauleda
Ralph Adams
  Pseudorchis Charles Sheviak
  Pteroglossaspis Gustavo Romero
  Sacoila Paul Catling
Charles Sheviak
  Schiedeella Paul Catling
  Spiranthes Paul Catling
Charles Sheviak
  Stenorrhynchos Paul Catling
  Tetramicra Eric Hagsater
  Tipularia Paul Catling
Charles Sheviak
  Tolumnia Mark Chase
  Triphora Max Medley
  Tropidia Ruben Sauleda
Ralph Adams
  Vanilla Ruben Sauleda
Ralph Adams
  Zeuxine

Ruben Sauleda
Ralph Adams


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